ANGLO SAXON CHRONICLE PDF
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Anglo Saxon Chronicle (A-Prime), refered to as the Parker Manuscript; Anglo Saxon Chronicle (A) (or G), refered to as the Winchester. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle is a historical record in English, which takes the form of The following selections are from the Peterborough Chronicle (named. Welcome to Britannia's online version of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, one of the most important documents that has come down to us from the middle ages.
The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. Janet M. Bately Cambridge , p. Simon Taylor Cambridge , p. C, ed.
Cubbin Cambridge , p. E, ed. Susan Irvine Cambridge , p. Peter S. Baker Cambridge , p. Clare Downham, University of Liverpool viking-army from to Furthermore, the Chronicle occasionally reveals an awareness of multiple viking-armies in England; but, as Shippey has shown, priority is given to one line of action while others receive less attention. This method has its benefits in producing a fairly coherent narrative with a sense of chronological progression from one year to the next can you almost hear F.
Stenton issuing a sigh of relief when he reached the year in his account? It is almost certainly a highly incomplete record of events, but this is sometimes obscured by the way in which the narrative was composed.
In this analysis, I shall proceed by going through events annal by annal. Annal for A.
William Henry Stevenson Oxford ; rev. Whitelock, , pp. Stenton, Anglo-Saxon England 3rd edn, Oxford , pp. Clare Downham, University of Liverpool However, this record does give the first report of tribute being paid to vikings by the English: One may suppose that it then left England, although it is possible that all or part of it joined the army which arrived in the kingdom of East Angles in late or that it remained in England but fades into obscurity as far as the records are concerned.
Annal is a reminder that the fleet whose arrival would be reported in the following annal need not have been the only one in English waters at that time. Asser wrote that it came de Danubia, but modern historians have suggested that he had Denmark in mind. Michael Lapidge et al. Oxford , p. Stevenson, p. For general discussion, see R. Papers from the Eleventh-centenary Conferences, ed.
Timothy Reuter Aldershot , pp. Lapidge Harmondsworth , p. Campbell Edinburgh , p.
Patrick Wormald suggested further that the renewed interest of vikings in England in the mids corresponded with declining opportunities for vikings in Francia due to the strategies employed by Charles the Bald: Farrell Chichester , pp.
The Northumbrian attempts at defence were ineffective. This had been a long way for the vikings from East Anglia to travel, but they benefited greatly from the political disunity of the Northumbrians. It seems likely that these vikings were tipped off concerning these events, which leads one to question where and how they might have received news of this: A, pp.
B, pp. C, pp. D, pp. E, pp. F, pp. Stevenson, pp. Alfred P. It is unclear how long this particular civil war had been raging among the Northumbrians.
This pattern of activity could be explained by an alliance between Dubliners from North Britain and vikings from Kent. Clare Downham, University of Liverpool for a year. As York was a temporary base of operations, some measures may have been taken to secure its loyalty in their absence, whether by leaving some troops there or through the seizure of hostages or both.
In Mercia we see the vikings following tactics similar to those employed at York, namely the seizure of a fortified site which they could use to defend themselves against the natives: It was presumably in consequence of that peace that the viking-army left Nottingham and returned to York annal In the following annal we are told that the vikings of York rode across Mercia to East Anglia winter One wonders whether part of the agreement at Nottingham was to allow troop-movements by these vikings in Mercian territory or whether the army was seeking to demonstrate its authority by this act.
These vikings now focused their attention on the task of subduing the East Angles. Abbo added that Ubba remained in Northumbria. Both these versions belong to the first half of the twelfth century.
The E-text comments on the destruction of churches around Peterborough, and the F-text names the leaders of the viking-army as Ingware and Ubba.
Campbell, p. Memorials of St. Thomas Arnold 3 vols, London —6 , I. Michael Winterbottom Toronto , p. There are inconsistencies and gaps in the record. The Chronicler also qualified his enumeration by saying that these are engagements south of the Thames, not therefore including other events which could have taken place north of that river.
Other issues arise from closer analysis of this text. After three days the army divided. Asser stated that a group stayed and built a rampart between the River Thames and the River Kennet Reading is located on the southern bank of the Thames. According to Asser, they had the greater part of the army with them, but this seems incompatible with the subsequent statement that nine earls fell in battle this year: William M.
Hennessy London , pp. This time, the vikings had the victory.
The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle: MS E
Four days later, another fight took place, at Ashdown Berkshire , which shows that the viking-army had travelled some distance to the west. He would presumably have taken a force with him and no doubt a haul of booty. Again, one may allow for some exaggeration by the Chronicler s , who might have sought to emphasise the English victory. Both were put to flight with heavy losses. Bagsecg and five earls are named among the fallen. At Basing Hampshire , and more ambiguously at the unidentified Meretun, the vikings won.
At Meretun, the vikings fought in two divisions, although this may have been in detail a formation different from that at Ashdown.
Donald Scragg Oxford , pp. In annal , after the account of the battle of Meretun, another viking-army appears on the scene.
Asser is clear that the summer-army joined the one which was already there societati se adiunxit ,45 but the Chronicle does not explicitly say so. Asser either was working from an assumption not in itself an unlikely state of affairs or had other evidence to this effect. It could mean the united forces of the two armies mentioned in this annal or possibly the full force of one army.
At Wilton, the vikings won. They do not seem to have followed up their victory with an attempt to conquer the West Saxons. Instead they travelled east from Reading to establish winter-quarters at London where the Mercians made peace with them.
According to annal , vikings went from London and over-wintered at Torksey in Lindsey. Here the Mercians made peace again. On this episode, cf. Smyth, Scandinavian Kings, pp. On the word and its appearance elsewhere, see D. Simon Taylor Dublin , pp. Samuels Edinburgh , pp.
The armies seem to have united by Smyth, Scandinavian Kings, p. In , they assert, the first of these kings, Ecgberht, was driven out by the Northumbrians. However, these texts are unacceptably late, and the origins of their reports are uncertain. If so, they achieved their goal the following year annal , when the army moved from Lindsey to Repton Derbyshire ; the Mercian king, Burhred, fled overseas and died soon after.
A Revised Translation, transl. Dorothy Whitelock et al.
London ; rev. Henry O. Coxe 5 vols, London —4 , I. Giles 2 vols, London , I.
David Rollason et al. Metcalf Oxford , pp. Jane Roberts et al. Cambridge , pp. Clare Downham, University of Liverpool king who swore to act under their direction. They have demonstrated that a D-shaped earthen defensive enclosure was constructed there, incorporating an earlier church which was badly damaged by vikings.
A mass-grave at Repton may be dated to and seems to contain victims of war or plague among the viking-army. As to the burial at Repton, it is worth keeping in mind that, apart from the kings named as belonging to the viking-army, there were numerous jarls earls ; several of the latter are named among the fallen at Ashdown and later at the battle of Edington On his reign, see S.
Mark A. Dumville Woodbridge , pp. Essays for Peter Gabriel McCaffery, edd. David F. Philsooph Aberdeen , pp. The Annals of Ulster, I, edd. James Graham-Campbell et al. Oxford , pp.
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Margaret Schlauch 2nd edn, London , pp. Clare Downham, University of Liverpool who might have been buried with the same honour shown at the central burial in Repton. Three kings — Guthrum, Oscetel, and Anwend — went with a big army to Cambridge mid micle here. Annal reports that, after over-wintering on the Tyne, he made war on the Picts and Strathclyde Britons. Hill London , pp. See above, pp. On Dubgennti, see A. See further, chapter 6, below, and C.
He was however killed in in a battle against Finngennti at Strangford Lough on the northeastern coast of Ireland. The origins of this battle and its location are not given. The account seems intended to glorify Alfred more than to shed light on the events of this year. It could suggest that other viking-groups were at large or that naval scouting parties were sent from the viking-army under the command of Anwend, Oscetel, and Guthrum whose journey to Cambridge in the Mercian kingdom is reported in the same annal.
The Chronicle states that this army stayed at Cambridge for a year, which indicates that the report was written at least one year retrospectively. That is because it soon becomes a menace to the West Saxons.
The Author’s Use of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle
In annal this southern viking-army Asser made quite explicit its origin at Cambridge went west to Wareham Dorset. Hudson ed. See also the discussions by M. Hennessy, pp. On Finngenti, cf. Dubgennti in n. However, I think it more likely that branches of the army travelled separately: Latuerum cum equitibus et peditibus atque omni supellectili ueniunt.
Naues quoque per mare Sumnam fluuium ingressae Perhaps because of these losses at sea, and perhaps being short of supplies, the horse-troop, which had already taken the fortress of Exeter, decided to make peace with Alfred; they gave hostages and swore great oaths. The following events, of , are well known.
In early January a viking-army presumably crossing the border from Mercia 73 launched a surprise-attack on the royal estate of Chippenham Wiltshire. The arrival of a 69Annal Alfred, transl. The first is by far the more substantial contributor, writing all the entries from fol. The consistency of the hand and ink in the writing of the annals up to the end of fol. See my discussion of the post-Reformation history of the manuscript at p.
The scribe, with the end of the entry for , apparently brought the Chronicle up-to-date, and then continued over the following ten years or so to add material as it seemed appropriate or as it became available. A second scribe was responsible for the annals from to fols 88r10 to 91v.
The uniform appearance of these entries suggests that they were probably entered as one block into the manuscript. The following letters deserve special mention. Occasionally the caroline form of a is found: in the Old English text on fol. In the Old English text, several instances occur up to fol. After fol. See, for example, Ker, Catalogue, p. E such as in the Latin dehonestauerant 26v The caroline d is used again in the entry for decembris 81v5 , and then sporadically in subsequent entries candelmesse 83v15, Lundene 84v10, eorldom 85v1 , under- 85v12, deum laudamus 88r Capital E is straight-backed except for one instance: Eall 84r As one would expect in a late manuscript, the bar transects the descender.
The caroline form occurs in the Latin entries on fol. The capital appears both as a plain capital H and in its uncial form. The latter appears sometimes with a rounded bow, sometimes with an angular shoulder and broken bow both of which types are exemplified in the first few folios , and sometimes with a broken bow descending below the line as can be seen on fols 35v and 36r.
In the early part of the manuscript, the scribe tends to use the two forms alternately as the first letter of Her at the beginning of annals, but this is not consistently maintained and the uncial form becomes much more common.
Capital I usually sits on the line but occasionally descends below it as in Ic 18r The latter is much more common up to the end of 83r14 , after which the former is the more common of the two. See also Whitelock, The Peterborough Chronicle, p. The Peterborough Chronicle, p. Often, as in the latter two of these examples, it seems to have space-filling as its function. Capital N generally appears as a larger form of the normal n for example, Nu 10r12 , but sometimes appears in a form looking rather like plain capital H but with a descending diagonal crossstroke the slight variations available to the scribe are exemplified by Ne 11r23, Nones 13v12, and Nu 18r Occasionally the caroline form occurs: there are three instances in the Latin text on fol.
There is also occasional use of the 2-shaped r which follows o in some Latin words: apostolorum 2r, col. All of them are found on fol. They are as follows. This is the most common form of s used on the first page of the manuscript, for example in sind 1r2 , brittisc 1r4 , wilsc 1r4. It is then virtually the only form of s in use for about 40 folios. At fol. Low insular s is used more frequently again in the annals for —7. In the Latin entries on fols 3—5, the scribe also uses both high forms and ones closer to the caroline s.
The predominance of low insular s after fol. From fol. E some of the other early folios where the scribe still uses high s for example in ofsticod 1v16 and in the Latin entries on fol.
Where the use of high s resumes in later folios see above , it is common in st combinations for the headstroke of t to join with or pierce the shaft of a preceding high s. Elsewhere in the manuscript it is used occasionally, sometimes at the end of the line as in iohannes 85v8 , sometimes with the s written above the line especially in Latin names as in Clemens 3r, col.
Occasionally u, uu, or v occur in its place see under Language: Orthography. The forms of wynn and p are sometimes confused, for example wynn for p in manuscript wihtum 19v1 and awuldre 34v6 , and p for wynn in manuscript palas 1v5 and forspeldon 42v As a capital, W is preferred to capital wynn.
The cross-bar turns up sharply at the far end, sometimes transecting the upstroke, sometimes protruding only from the right side of the upstroke.
Ascenders are 53 Ker, Catalogue, p. Descenders generally turn to the left at the end. The following letters require special comment. After o the 2-shaped r is consistently used.
Rounded minuscule is sometimes used finally, for example in sinnes 89v30 and was 90v4 ; sometimes it is written above the line, as in castles 89r The ligature for st is consistently used. For the capital both capital wynn and W occur. In the opening pages of the manuscript the first scribe has sometimes entered annalnumbers and annals in more than one column, presumably to save parchment. The first page and the first half of the second page, containing the Preface and the entry for 60 BC, are entered in single column, but at lines 17—18 of fol.
At line 19, the scribe reverts to single column to enter two annals. At line 22, the scribe moves to double columns, at line 24 a single column is used to enter a one-line annal, then at line 25 the scribe reverts to double columns, which are hitherto used consistently for fols 2r to 7v.
Some material, mainly relating to Peterborough, has been filled in later by the first scribe in gaps that were left in the course of copying. Three substantial additions of this type are easily recognizable from the xxiii MS. E continuation of their material into the bottom margin: on fol. Rubrication The annals up to the end of and those for and are preceded by an annal-number and a space to the left of the beginning of the entry. This annal-number is on a fresh line except for the double-column pages and has been filled in after the writing of the entries.
The second scribe has put the annal-numbers at the beginning of the first line of the relevant annal. The amount of space needed to write the number, however, has often been underestimated by this scribe, who has then had to find ways to fit in at least part of the number elsewhere for example by beginning it on the previous line or writing it above the line. Decoration The manuscript is relatively plain.
On some folios, the first letter of each annal has been filled in with red. The large capitals beginning the annals from to the end on fols 83r to 91v are in red. Abbreviations Both scribes use abbreviations.
The second scribe abbreviates more frequently than the first. The following abbreviations are found in the Old English entries. This is a very common abbreviation; it appears as straight, or curved, or with a hook at either or both ends. Bodley , fol. This occurs occasionally in the combination ig, for example, ofstigan 12v2 , cinig 29r This is used once by the second scribe in byrie 91v The second scribe uses it finally as an abbreviation for ges in king 90v This occurs once 13r6.
This is used occasionally in a heavily hooked form by the second scribe for example, 89r10 an insertion above the line , 89r13, 91r20, 91v It is also used once by the second scribe as an abbreviation for kes: munek 91v This occurs for man in ealdorm 27v4 and for men in m 22v The second scribe uses it as an abbreviation for the inflection -men in the infinitive cum 88v24 and the preterite plural nam 89v The second scribe abbreviates Normandi as Norm at 88v This occurs as an abbreviation for ran in Flandr 74r7.
It is used in its heavily hooked form for rig in Cantwarbyr 73v This is a common abbreviation, used in, for example, wint 7r, col. The abbreviation is used once by the second scribe for tres in Pet 88v It is used within an abbreviation for Cantwarbyrig in Cantbyrig 79r4 , and within an abbreviation for Hagustaldesee in Hagustdee 25v The second scribe uses this for ber in Rodbt for example at 90v1 , and for xxv MS.
E byri in Cantwarb 90v6 and [Can]teb 91r A line through both ascenders of a double b denotes bba in Abbndune 49v4, 51v For abbot and abbodesse, see below.
This is an abbreviation for les in Michael 72r In Englal it is an abbreviation for land used by the first scribe at 50r15 and the second scribe at 89r1. In Ierlm it is an abbreviation for usale 2v, col. A line through both ascenders of a double l denotes lle in rihtfull 73v7 , and llel in Willm 71v6.
This is a very common abbreviation in the hand of the first scribe. This is commonly used by both scribes for the conjunction and though the word is sometimes written out in full. The abbreviation abb with both bs crossed is used for abbod or abbot both forms are used in full by the first scribe, whilst the second scribe uses abbot but not abbod.
The second scribe once uses the abbreviation ab 91v In its inflected forms the word is usually written out by the scribes in full, but occasionally an abbreviated form is used as in abbs for abbotas 62v22, abb for abbotes 89v The abbreviation abb is used occasionally by both scribes in writing the compound abbrice for example, 64v17, 88v The abbreviation abbn for abban in Abbandune is used twice by the first scribe 49v4, 51v The abbreviation b for biscop is frequently used by both scribes.
It is also used for inflected forms for example, b for biscopas 28r20, b for biscopes 89v The first scribe also occasionally uses b in compounds for example, bdome 22r22, brice 52r16 ; the second scribe has no relevant examples.
The abbreviation bcop is used in bcoprices 73r The term prior is sometimes abbreviated with a short vertical line above the p for pri , as at 82r8 and 88v5. In the numbering of annals an abbreviated Latin word is followed by the relevant Roman numeral. To denote in the numbering of annals, the first scribe generally uses Millmo the cross-stroke begins at the first l and extends through the second as an abbreviation for Millesimo.
Occasionally there is no cross-stroke through the double l as in the dates , , and ; once the scribe uses M with o written above it The first scribe occasionally uses overlined M, either on its own or in combination with abbreviated Anno , ; the second scribe consistently uses M in dating.
Given the extreme rarity of inflected forms it is reasonable to assume that the scribes were following the general late Old English usage of the indeclinable forms kalendas, idus, and nonas. For May, Mai is always written.
There is a heavy use of normal Latin abbreviations in the Latin entries. My examples here are confined to the scribal abbreviations of Latin words that appear within the Old English entries. These are found as follows: actib; aplor 2r, col. See also Baker, MS. E dm 2v, col. Punctuation The prevalent punctuation mark used by both scribes is the punctus, which is used to indicate both major and minor sense divisions.
Other punctuation marks are used only sporadically. The punctus interrogativus is used four times, with every instance occurring in the annal for 63v, 9 and 10, and 64r, 9 and Two unusual punctuation marks are each found once: one, separating two main clauses in the entry for 70v3 , looks like a punctus elevatus sideways on; the other, separating a subordinate from a main clause in the entry for a 62r27 , slightly resembles the musical sign porrectus.
They occur on both long and short vowels. The first scribe uses a combination of dots and a comma at 53r30, and a dotted y fols 23r and 56r. More often than not, however, erasure itself has removed the offending text. There are, however, a number of errors in the annal-numbers, leading in some cases to considerable distortion in their relation to the events they record.
The following annal-numbers have been subject to scribal correction: 22 corrected from. The annal-number is followed by the erasure of a whole annal-number. In the section written by the second scribe, has been corrected by erasure. The annalnumber is corrected, probably from. Some of these pertain to individual annal-numbers: appears as ; is repeated as the result of the insertion of a Latin annal , so that the annal for appears in E under ; is repeated so that the annal for appears in E under ; a blank annal is omitted; is omitted, the material relating to having been entered under ; is omitted, 1 See my discussion of the post-Reformation history of the manuscript at p.
Others pertain to runs of annal-numbers. As a result of the omission of a blank annal , appears for , for , for , and for ; is then repeated with the result that the first annal under reports events relating to and the second annal under reports events relating to Following from this repetition of , appears for , appears for ; is then repeated with the result that the first annal under reports events relating to and the second reports events relating to Following from this repetition of , appears for , and appears for With the omission of , , and , the correct chronology is finally restored.
Another incorrect run of annal-numbers begins with the repetition of , which means that the second entry under reports events relating to ; subsequently appears for , and appears for With the omission of , the correct chronology is finally restored. Cotton Tiberius A. VI MS. Cotton Tiberius B.The eighth scribe wrote the annals for the years —, and was clearly at Winchester when he wrote them since he adds some material related to events there; he also uses ceaster, or "city", to mean Winchester.
Zupitza Berlin: Weidmann, , E some of the other early folios where the scribe still uses high s for example in ofsticod 1v16 and in the Latin entries on fol. Clare Downham, University of Liverpool for a year. In the case of , this leads to duplication in D; for other cases, see Whitelock, The Peterborough Chronicle, pp.
Aurorae boreales are portrayed as dragons in other medieval annals. That aurorae functioned as ominous signs is elucidated in the Annals of Fulda year , which reports that at Mainz the sky was red like blood for many nights, other portents were seen in the heavens, and people were amazed and afraid and prayed that those monstrous occurrences might be turned to good. Peter S. In the Old English text, several instances occur up to fol.