Biography Sas Programming 2 Data Manipulation Techniques Pdf


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This course is for those who need to learn data manipulation techniques using SAS® DATA and procedure steps to access, transform, and summarise. SAS data. SAS Programming II: Manipulating Data with the DATA Step Course Notes SAS® You can use the techniques described in Chapter 3 and the NOTSORTED. Very good resources to learn SAS. Contribute to beckwang80/SAS development by creating an account on GitHub.

Sas Programming 2 Data Manipulation Techniques Pdf

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Notes and labs from SAS Programming 2 Data Manipulation Techniques -- ECPRG SAS - SAS(R) Programming 2: Data Manipulation. Techniques. This course is for those who need to learn data manipulation techniques using SAS DATA and. SAS PDF. Pointer in deciding on the most effective book SAS Programming 2: Data Manipulation Techniques: Course Notes By SAS to read this day can be.

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Typographical Conventions You will see several type styles in this book. This list explains the meaning of each style: Italic is also used for book titles when they are referenced in text, as well as for various syntax and mathematical elements. Monospace is also used to refer to variable and data set names, field names in windows, information in fields, and user-supplied information. This book also uses icons to represent selectable items.

Syntax Conventions The general forms of SAS statements and commands shown in this book include only that part of the syntax actually taught in the course. For complete syntax, see the appropriate SAS reference guide. In this case, the value must be the name of a SAS data set. They are separated by a vertical bar to indicate they are mutually exclusive; you can choose one or the other. The angle brackets enclose the slash as well as options because if no options are specified you do not include the slash.

Chapter 1 Introduction 1. The DATA step permits true programming functionality. It is flexible accessible. You can use the DATA step in the following ways to transform your information: Read from a raw data file into the SAS System. DATA Step Rotate a data set. E 1 35 E 2 48 E 3 40 E 4 30 Combine existing data sets.

You can also add or augment information in a variety of ways. Create accumulating totals. Manipulate numeric values. Manipulate character values. Happy 29th Birthday! SAS Function Summarize data sets. And much, much more. Review creating a SAS data set from a raw data file. Portion Ruth, G H S However, as in all versions of SAS, variable names are not case-sensitive within the program. This enables you to create variable names that are easier to read in reports without worrying about case-sensitivity within your SAS programs.

Variable Type and Length Variables can be Character Character 1 1to to 32K 32K Numeric Numeric by bydefault, default,stored storedininfloating floatingpoint point representation representationusing using88bytes bytes 20 It is possible to store numeric variables using fewer than 8 bytes. However, reducing the length of numeric variables decreases their precision and can yield unexpected results. Each data field starts in the same position, respectively, in every record of the file.

You can read fixed-column raw data files with either column or formatted input. General form of a DATA statement: Options in the DATA statement affect how the output data set is created but not how the data is read. Informat specifies how many positions to read and how to convert the raw data into a SAS value. The informat that is used depends on the form of the field in the raw data file. Unless these attributes are specified before the INPUT statement, SAS uses the informat to set the type and length of the variables you read from the raw data file.

The minimum record length was The maximum record length was The data set WORK. FLTAT1 has 9 observations and 4 variables. E 26OCT 17 Salary 5. The assignment statement creates Bonus and sets its type and length. If a variable is referenced multiple times in a DATA step, the attributes are set at the first encounter. Execute Execute NO program programstatements. Raw Data File Execution data work. E 16SEP 17 Salary 5. Raw Data File data work. The assignment statement calculates the value for Bonus and assigns it to the variable.

There is an implicit output at the bottom of the DATA step. At every execution after the first, all variables not read from SAS are set to missing.

This includes variables read with an INPUT statement and variables created with an assignment statement. By default, all variables and all observations are displayed. A format controls how data values are displayed. Salary Bonus dollar7. For example, the following code assigns permanent formats to the variables Salary, Bonus, and HireDate: General form of a VAR statement: Review creating a new SAS data set from an existing data set. Review conditional processing. SAS-filename libref.

Reference the data set using the libref as the first part of the data set name. If the libref is already assigned in the SAS session, you do not need to assign it again. Use the libref as the first level of the SAS data set name. GREEN 0. General form of a SET statement: Options in the SET statement affect how the data is read. General form of a DROP statement: They are available for processing during the DATA step. SAS data sets contain an end-of-file marker that signals the end of the data file.

When a title is set, it stays in effect until it is changed or canceled, or until the SAS session ends. They may not be appropriate for all sites. Unlike the Program Editor, it does not automatically clear when code is submitted, and you can have multiple Enhanced Editor windows open simultaneously. Navigating the Windows To navigate to any window, do one of the following: To close any window, do one of the following: Select File Open or select.

A Windows dialog box appears. Navigate through the folders and highlight the program. Select OK. Highlight the code you want to submit. This is not necessary if you submit the entire contents of the window. Recalling Submitted Code The Program Editor is cleared automatically every time code is submitted from it. To recall submitted code, make the Program Editor the active window, and do one of the following: Select File Save As Navigate to the folder in which you want to save the program.

Type a name for the program in the appropriate box. Clearing Windows To clear a window, do one of the following: For example, to clear both the Log and Output windows, type the following in the command bar: There is a floating toolbar with a command bar and shortcut icons.

Drop-down menus are at the top of each window. Navigating the Windows To activate any window, do one of the following: Do any of the following to submit the contents of the Program Editor: A dialog box appears. Navigate to the directory in which you want to save the program.

Issuing Multiple Commands at Once To submit more than one command at the same time, type the commands, separated by semicolons, in the command bar and press the Enter key. This prevents suspended output. If the Program Editor is active, the F3 key submits the code in the window. To restore the window to normal size, type Z on the command line of the maximized window and press the Enter key. Press the Enter key.

To submit code, do one of the following: To recall submitted code, make the Program Editor the active window and do one of the following: A note appears at the top of the window. However, the Program Editor in all three environments allows the use of line number commands. Use these commands to copy, paste, or delete program code.

I inserts one line after the current line. In inserts n lines after the current line. IB inserts one line before the current line.

IBn inserts n lines before the current line. D deletes the current line. Dn deletes n lines. DD deletes a block of lines. Type dd on the first and last lines of the block. R repeats the current line once. Rn repeats the current line n times. RR repeats a block of lines once. Type rr on the first and last lines of the block. Type c to copy or m to move the line you want to copy or move. Type a for after or b for before on the appropriate line to indicate where you want to copy or move the specified line.

To copy or move a block of lines of code, do the following: Type cc or mm on the first line you want to copy or move. Type cc or mm on the last line you want to copy or move. Type a for after or b for before on the appropriate line to indicate where you want to copy or move the block of lines. Line number commands are not available in the Windows Enhanced Editor. If each of the five divisions grows at its respective rate for the next three years, what will be the approximate size of each division at the end of each of the three years?

Partial Listing of prog2. Implicit output An iteration is one execution of a sequence of computer operations or instructions that are performed a specified number of times or until a condition is met. Implicit output When one observation is read from prog2. The forecast data set contains four variables: Division, Increase, Year, and NewTotal. The Increase variable is not displayed in the representations of forecast.

There were 5 observations read from the data set PROG2. A SAS function can be used to change the stored value. Fill in the blank with the location of your SAS data library. When a data set is rotated, the values of an observation in the input data set become values of a variable in the output data set.

Create four output observations in rotate from each input observation in prog2. The rotate data set should have three variables: ID, Qtr, and Amount.

Print the data set to verify your results. E 35 48 40 30 E A value of Y in the Internet, Telephone, or TravelAgency variables indicates that the frequent flyer used that method. This data set will contain one observation for each method used by each frequent flyer.

There will be two observations in buyhistory that refer to F, but only one observation that refers to F The buyhistory data set should have two variables: ID and Method. Use conditional processing to control the data set s to which an observation is written. Create four SAS data sets, army, navy, airforce, and marines.

Each of the four data sets should contain information about a single branch of the armed forces. You can create multiple SAS data sets in a single DATA step by listing the names of the output data sets separated by at least one space. You can specify the name s of a data set or data sets to which SAS writes the observation. There were observations read from the data set PROG2. ARMY has 41 observations and 5 variables.

NAVY has 28 observations and 5 variables. Each observation contains an element's name, symbol, atomic number, and state. The value of State refers to whether the element is a gas, liquid, solid, or synthetic at room temperature. A synthetic element is an element that is not present in nature.

Create four SAS data sets: Each data set will contain information about those elements that have that state at room temperature. Each of these four data sets should contain three variables; they should not contain the State variable.

Character values are case-sensitive. The gas data set should contain 11 observations. The liquid data set should contain three observations. The solid data set should contain 78 observations. The synthetic data set should contain 21 observations. In , a team of scientists announced the observation of what appeared to be elements ununhexium and ununoctium.

In , the team retracted its original paper after several confirmation experiments failed to reproduce the desired results. In , a team of scientists from the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and the Joint Institute of Nuclear Research in Russia announced the discovery of the superheavy elements ununtrium, uut and ununpentium, uup. Element ununseptium, uus is not yet discovered.

Writing to Multiple SAS Data Sets Optional A lanthanide is any member of the series of elements of increasing atomic numbers beginning with lanthanum 57 and ending with ytterbium An actinide is any member of the series of elements that begins with actinium 89 and ends with lawrencium Create two SAS data sets, lanthanides and actinides.

Each data set will contain information about those elements in each respective series. Be sure that each data set contains four variables. Control which variables are read from an input data set during a DATA step.

However, all variables are available for processing. ARMY has 41 observations and 2 variables. Typically, choose the data set option or statement that minimizes the amount of typing. You cannot use either data set option in the DATA statement. To guarantee that SAS processes all observations from a data set, you can use the following syntax: There were 25 observations read from the data set PROG2. ARMY has 10 observations and 6 variables. Processing begins with observation 11 and ends after observation There were 15 observations read from the data set PROG2.

ARMY has 5 observations and 6 variables. There were 3 observations read from the data set WORK. Controlling Input and Output Size Recall that the prog2. The natural data set will contain information about elements that are solids, liquids, or gases at room temperature. The natural data set will contain three variables Name, AtomicNum, and State and 92 observations.

The synthetic data set will contain two variables Name and AtomicNum and 21 observations. Insert header and footer records into an external file.

Read this data set and write the data to an external file. They enable you to manage output objects produced by procedures and the DATA step. External data sources can include database tables, PC files, spreadsheets, and delimited external files. General form of the FILE statement: The physical name is the name by which the operating environment recognizes the file. You must have previously associated a fileref with an external file in a FILENAME statement or function, or in an appropriate operating environment command.

The default file-specification is LOG. You can use PRINT as your initial file-specification to verify the contents of your output file before creating an external file.

The physical name is the name that is recognized by the operating environment.

General form of the PUT statement: PUT PUTvariable-1 variable-1 variable-2 variable-2 … … variable-n; variable-n; With simple list output, you list the names of the variables whose values you want written. The PUT statement writes a variable value, inserts a single blank, and then writes the next value. In addition to variable values, you can also use a quoted character string to specify a string of text to write. When a quoted character string is written, SAS does not automatically insert a blank space.

The output pointer stops at the column that immediately follows the last character in the string. The values of character variables are left-aligned in the field; leading and trailing blanks are removed. A null PUT statement can be used to output a blank line: To use modified list output, use the colon: You can specify either SAS formats or user- defined formats.

The colon format modifier enables you to specify a format that the PUT statement uses to write the variable value. All leading and trailing blanks are deleted, and each value is followed by a single blank. You must enclose the name in quotation marks. You must have previously associated the fileref with an external file in a FILENAME statement or function, or in an appropriate operating environment command.

You can use any text editor available for your operating environment to view the external file. The following PUT statement produces unexpected results: When the SET statement reads the last observation of the data set listed, the value of the variable is set to 1.

The variable is not added to any new data set. It is not a data set option; it is not enclosed in parentheses. The prog2. The SellPrice variable is not displayed in the representations of prog2. Not all fields and records are displayed in the representations of raw-data-file. Partial Listing of raw-data-file False SellDate: Partial Listing of raw-data-file True SellDate: Although a character string or character variable is accepted, only the first character of the string or variable is used as the output delimiter.

Writing to an External File The data set prog2. Create a comma-delimited external file containing the information from prog2. The name of your external file depends on your operating environment.

The first record in the external file should contain column headers. The last record in the external file should contain a footer. If you use the Windows operating environment and assign an extension of CSV to your external file, do not attempt to view it in Excel by double-clicking on the file in the Windows Explorer. Because the first field on the first record is ID, Excel may interpret this as a special file type and be unable to open it. Listing of prog2.

The values of Date should not be output using this format. Prevent reinitialization of a variable in the PDV. Create an accumulating variable. There is 03APR Previous values of retained variables are available for processing across iterations of the DATA step. Missing Values data mnthtot; set prog2. Subsequent values of Missing value Mth2Dte are missing.

The result of any mathematical operation on a missing value is missing. With the above code, one missing value for SaleAmt causes all subsequent values of Mth2Dte to be missing. You can solve this problem by using the SUM function in the assignment statement: General form of the sum statement: Missing Values data mnthtot2; set prog2. Creating an Accumulating Total Variable The data set prog2. The data set is sorted by EnterDate.

Create the SAS data set work. Partial Listing of work. Calculate an accumulating total for groups of data.

SAS Programming 2: Data Manipulation Techniques Course Notes

Use a subsetting IF statement to output selected observations. BY-variable First. BY-variable Last. BY-variable 50 First. Values The First. The Last. Use these temporary variables to conditionally process sorted, grouped, or indexed data. Example Look ahead. Div Salary First. What Must Happen When? There is a three-step process for accumulating totals. Set the accumulating variable to zero at the start of each BY group. Increment the accumulating variable with a sum statement automatically retains.

Output only the last observation of each BY group. General form of the subsetting IF statement: Div; run; 61 The statement if Last. BY-variable; means if Last. BY-variable is true. A numeric value is considered true if it is not equal to zero and not missing. Execute Executeprogram program statements. NO Is the if condition; condition true?

Execute YES Executeadditional additional program programstatements.

There were 39 observations read from the data set WORK. Region is the primary sort variable. Div is the secondary sort variable.

Region Div First. Multiple BY Variables: Accumulating Totals for a Group of Data The data set prog2. It shows the frequent flyer number ID and the number of miles earned for that trip Miles. Create a data set named work. Listing of work. However, a SAS programmer discovered some duplicate observations. Write a DATA step that sends duplicate observations to a data set named work.

To create two data sets, list both in the DATA statement. Rotating a Data Set Optional A bookstore sells three types of products: The SAS data set prog2. The variable Sales shows the total sales for that product on each day.

Partial listing of prog2. The data set is already sorted by Date. Rotate the data set so that it has only one observation per day, and a variable for each type of merchandise. The value for each merchandise type should be the sales for that product on that day.

Creating an Accumulating Total Variable data usarea; set prog2. ID and Last.

ID, Last. ID First. Code, and Last. EmpID and Last. Read a comma-delimited raw data file. Read a raw data file with missing data at the end of a row.

Read a raw data file with missing data represented by consecutive delimiters. The fields are separated by spaces. There is one nonstandard field. Use list input to read free-format data. The list input style signals to the SAS System that fields are separated by delimiters. SAS then reads from non-delimiter to delimiter instead of from a specific location on the raw data record.

No symbol after the variable name indicates a numeric variable. Input Data The second field is a date. How does SAS store dates?

Some examples of standard numeric data include Standard character data is any character you can type on your keyboard. Standard character values are always left- justified by SAS.

For example, 3E5 is an alternative way of writing Nonstandard Data The term nonstandard data refers to character and numeric data that SAS does not recognize automatically. General form of an informat: If no width is specified, SAS uses the default width for that informat. With the list input style, the length of the informat is not important because the delimiter determines how far SAS reads.

Specifying an Informat To specify an informat, use the colon: If the colon is omitted, SAS reads the length of the informat, which may cause it to read past the end of the field. No error message is printed. You might see invalid data messages or unexpected data values. Suppose that you have the following data record: This results in the following value: When SAS attempts to convert this value to a date, it prints an invalid data message to the log and sets the value of Birthday to missing.

You cannot store a numeric in more than eight bytes. Storing a numeric in less than eight bytes reduces its precision and can cause unexpected results. PassCap CargoCap; run; 17 An informat can also set the length of a character variable.

The following code produces the same result as the code used in the example: PassCap CargoCap; run; If you use this method to set the lengths of character variables, be certain to use the colon modifier. Non-Default Delimiter The fields are separated by commas.

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You can also use hexadecimal characters. By default, two or more consecutive delimiters are treated as one; therefore, a comma and an exclamation point together are also treated as a delimiter. One example of a hexadecimal character is a tab character. You can find the hexadecimal representation of a printable character using the HEXw.

For non-printable characters like a tab character, you should consult a programming reference for your operating system. SAS loads the next record to finish the observation 2. By default, when SAS reaches the end of a record without finding data for all variables in the INPUT statement, it skips to the next line to finish the observation. This can yield unexpected results. Suppose there is a raw data file with the following values: This specifies that SAS is to look for exactly four bytes of data.

If the same raw data file is read with the code data nums; infile 'file-name' truncover; input num 4. It is often used in the Windows operating environment with column or formatted input to prevent carriage returns from affecting how raw data is read. The PAD option is not appropriate for reading delimited files with list input because it can cause unexpected results.

This is especially true if the data is delimited with spaces or if there is potentially more than one missing field at the end of some rows. Missing data should be represented by a placeholder. The order and layout of the fields are as follows: Sample Records Alabama!

For each record, the condition is listed first and followed by as many as three possible cures. Order Field Notes 1 Condition Longest value is 11 characters.

All the records do not have values for all fields. It has the following layout: Verify the data carefully.

You should have the same output as in Exercise 2. For help on reading raw data with formatted input, review Chapter 1, Section 2. Read a raw data file with mixed record types. Subset from a raw data file. Read a raw data file with multiple observations per record. The forward slash is known as a relative line pointer control because it moves the pointer relative to the line on which it currently appears.

There is also an absolute line pointer control that moves the pointer to a specific line. The absolute line pointer is used to control the default order of the variables in the SAS data set. The minimum record length was 8. The European sales figures are written with a comma in place of the decimal point.

SALES has 3 observations and 4 variables. Load next record. Hold record. SALES has 6 observations and 4 variables. The observation never reaches the bottom of the DATA step and is therefore never output.

Each record contains information for multiple employees. What Is Required? The Double Trailing The double trailing holds the raw data record across iterations of the DATA step until the line pointer moves past the end of the line. If used with column or formatted input, an infinite loop can result.

The "SAS went to a new line" message is expected because the option indicates that SAS should read until the end of each record. The first six fields are always as follows: For each transaction, the following information is stored: Name the first data set work.

Name the second data set work. Submit the program and verify the output. Modify the program so that it produces the output data set as efficiently as possible. Fixed column fields can be read in any order. Use the absolute line pointer to control the default order of the fields, so that the variables in the SAS data set are in the following order: For help on controlling variable length while preserving their order, see the notes on using informats on the INPUT statement in Chapter 4, Section 1.

Read a hierarchical file and create one observation per header record. Header Typically, each record contains a field Detail that identifies whether it is a header Detail record or a detail record. Susan The raw data file D: C header record containing E: David the name of the employee D: S and a detail record for E: Dorian D. Ian insurance. James D: Marla D: A Hierarchical File Not all the records are E: Susan the same. C The fields are separated E: David by colons.

S There is a field indicating E: C header or a detail record. Ian E: David D: Ian else do; E: Marla output; D: S end; Hold record. S end; run; Input Buffer E: S u s a n Reinitialize PDV. In this case, that is not desirable. S end; run; Input Buffer Explicit output D: This means that values from previous records are available for processing.

Susan D: James else do; D: S output; Hold record. As with the conditional input example in the previous section, the trailing holds the record while SAS checks the condition. Because of the explicit output in the DO group, SAS outputs an observation only when it encounters a detail record.

S output; end; run; Input Buffer E: E Employee insurance is D: C free for the employees. S insurance.

E insurance. E D:This annual conference offers unequaled educational and networking opportunities. The data sets should contain 39, 7, and 4 observations, respectively. You might need to write a numeric value to a character string. James D: Drop-down menus are at the top of each window. E 13 -8 E Argyle Yes D S end; run; Input Buffer E:

JANINA from Bryan
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