BANGLADESH A LEGACY OF BLOOD PDF
Bangladesh A Legacy of Blood- Anthony Mascarenhas [Bangla]. Bangladesh a Legacy of Blood - Download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online. Bangladesh: A Legacy of Blood is a non-fictional account of the history of Bangladesh from Its in to , written by journalist Anthony Mascarenhas.
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Bangladesh Legacy Blood Anthony Mascarenhas Arnold bangladesh: a legacy of blood (pdf) by anthony mascarenhas - bangladesh: a legacy of blood (pdf). Bangladesh: A legacy of blood [Anthony Mascarenhas] on ecogenenergy.info *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. This is a book written by Anthony Mascarenhas. A Legacy Of Blood By Anthony Mascarenhas Pdf Download by Janaphyli, released 11 October A Legacy Of Blood By Anthony.
A closer look at the history of Pakistan Movement reveals that Bangalees were also largely influenced by this factor, ironically by a person no less than Muhammad Ali Jinnah, who was known as an un-religious secularist in his lifestyle and ideology. If one goes back to the Partition of Bengal by Lord Curzon in , one would find the massive upsurge of anti-imperialist movement in Bengal against this partition.
Irrespective of class, religion and occupation, Bangalees were united for stopping this imperial design. An air of nationalistic awakening swept all over Bengal upon which Curzon had sarcastically commented that Bangalees started thinking themselves as a nation; it should be an emergency duty of the 9 Bruno Latour, On the Difficulty of Being Glocal. This name later became synonymous with the movement itself. So, despite the prevention of partition in , the Bangalees actually got themselves divided into Hindus and Muslims—in a crude form.
The British went on to encouraging the creation of Muslim League in by some prominent members of the Muslim community; they also patronized further division by accepting the Muslim demand of separate electorate. Then came communal riots much to the pleasure of the colonizers. Howver, middle class Hindus and Muslims judged their respective demand for freedom in terms of their self interests where both wanted their socio-economic development. Thus, Pakistan was created and the subsequent events led to the creation of Bangladesh, proving that the creation of Pakistan on the basis of Muslim nationhood was not an enduring proposition.
Such sentiment based on religion cannot, and thus did not, last long. The economic disparity between the two wings of Pakistan resulted in the development of Bangalee nationalism which proved that religion as a bond of unity failed to serve its purposes. The language movement launched to establish Bangla as one of the state languages of Pakistan marked the original basis of Bangalee nationalism.
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The attempt by the West Pakistani authorities to impose Urdu as the only state language of Pakistan was deemed by the Bangalees not only as an intrusion into their cultural life but also a far-reaching conspiracy of prolonged socio-economic colonization. Revisiting Bangladeshi Nationhood of unity, the impact of language on culture and national identity formation is profound.
The creation of Bangladesh on the basis of Bengali nationalism was characterized by changes in their socio-economic and cultural activities, affecting their day-to-day life. Such reconciliation depends on to what extent culture is likely to be influenced by religion, language, customs, usages and traditions.
It is a misconception that language and other associated factors, which are considered an integral part of our culture, should be the sole basis for its development. The role of religion towards such development is equally important as we have seen in the pre-colonial Bengal society. We will see below that this was not adequately considered by the politicians and intellectuals of sovereign Bangladesh right after independence in Bangladesh consists of 68 thousand villages inhabited mostly by semi-literate and illiterate people who constitute about 70 per cent of the total population.
Religious sentiments, not radical fundamentalism, are strong among these masses. The urban literate population, broadly divided into traditional and westernized elites, does not possess the same religious views. Despite the fact that the traditional elites are trying to adjust themselves to the new challenges of science and technology, they have strong views on religion.
The ultra-modern westernized groups on the other hand have adapted themselves to the newly acquired values, regardless of its adverse effect on religion. Such changes affecting the socio-cultural lives of the people of Bangladesh could not make much impact on the traditional elites and have been altogether rejected by the rural masses.
Several ultra-modern elite groups, who used to maintain pro-power stance during the Pakistan regime but drastically reaped the benefits of creation of Bangladesh, have innovated some new cultural practices to serve their own interests. The practice of such customs and rituals has no religious or cultural significance.
Majority of the people of Bangladesh have been treating such values as alien. It is true that their views on religion are not as progressive as the westernized elite, but at the same time they would not be happy to see the revival of any extreme ideologies pertaining to Muslim nationhood.
Like Muslims of different parts of Indian sub-continent, Bangladeshi Muslims in general used to utter Khoda Hafez in order to bid farewell or good-bye to fellow Muslims.
The nuance of this term became so normally widespread that even the non-Muslims used it frequently. Even the signboards on the roads, particularly at the boundaries of local administrative districts, switched to Allah Hafez to wish good-bye to exiting passengers.
The massive wave of Allah Hafez has swept Khoda Hafez not merely off roadside signs and hoardings but from its niches of every description.
So much so has been the shift that a Khoda Hafez from one to some colleague or friend is normally returned with a defiant Allah Hafez. The moot query is, why was this change? The general perception is, saying Khoda Hafez is a sin, as God Almighty has only one name to address, i. One can hardly fight this perception by highlighting the basic fact that our Supreme Creator looks at the genuineness of our intentions, not our utterance. Now coming to the word Khoda, it has been strongly intertwined with Bangalee Muslim culture for centuries.
The folklore of Bengal is strewn with Revisiting Bangladeshi Nationhood it. It may be also appropriate to recall how prominent place the word Khoda occupies in Persia, the land of its origin.
Yet that did not prevent him from using Khoda in his writings.
And as per Islamic scholars, Khoda is unambiguously a beautiful name of the Creator. In this regard, let us also analyze the ungrammatical nature of Allah Hafez. The two-word Khoda Hafez is an idiomatic Persian phrase.
The inherent grammatical structure of the phrase is Persian. The propagators of Allah Hafez are probably aggrieved by the fact that Khoda is a Persian word, not Arabic. A noted Pakistani academic Dr. He was awarded the status of National Poet of Bangladesh after independence in Browne, A literary History of Persia.
Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, Interestingly, all these Muslim heroes resembled the Hindu mythological figures like Ramchandra, Laxman, Arjun, Hanuman, Vishma, Radhika, Draupadi et al in characteristics and activities. By dint of his herculean power, Ameer Hamza effortlessly kills all the devil giants by going to their kingdom Kokaaf far above the sky. Revisiting Bangladeshi Nationhood every land that comes on his way.
Interestingly, all these lands are ruled by unmarried Brahmin ladies who are stunningly gorgeous and excessively brave. All these women had earlier declared that they would marry only that man who could defeat them in sword-fight.
Firstly, the primary intention of the writers was to highlight the graciousness of Islam through mother tongue Bangla which they tried to portray by imposing all sorts of incredibly gallant activities on the Muslim heroes; they thought that this would appeal the rural masses more.
And finally, most of the writers who were converted Muslims from backward Hindu castes and hence once subjugated by upper caste Hindus later took a sort of psychological revenge on the Brahmins by displaying their defeats at the hands of Muslim heroes. Global fundamentalism turned glocal Bangladesh, despite its remarkable socio-economic developments over the years, has been traumatized by precarious political turmoil resulting frequent non-functioning of its political system and lack of basic tenets of social security.
Citizens of such states are more vulnerable to the propaganda and radical agenda of global terrorist agencies. Thus, extremists have the chance to gain popular support for the use of political violence during any tenuous 21 Between 19th and early 20th centuries. Despite the fact that JMB hardly enjoyed any mass support and was soon banned after the hanging of their two cult-leaders, global fundamentalism found its motivational infiltration in the mass psyche in a soft-core format.
In a much refined, intellectual appearance, Hizbut Tahrir Bangladesh24 started to gain momentum targeting the educated people, particularly teachers and students of public and private universities—as well as professionals like doctors, lawyers, engineers and very importantly, ICT experts.
Bangladesh: A Legacy of Blood
It propagated the ideas of value education, enlightened thinking, obedience to religious ethics, moral codes of conduct and so on which drew substantial dedicated followers. Gradually, the radical agendas of this forum became obvious and people became aware of its undercover acts. In the backdrop of such gradually increasing, incessant activities of these groups, the most interesting phase has ultimately taken place, i. Instead of following the footsteps of other radical Islamist groups, Hefazot leaders since their inception undertook a carefully planned strategy of highlighting ordinary religiosity as their motto, i.
Book: Bangladesh A Legacy of Blood
However, outwardly they could not or did not maintain this image due to twofold reasons: firstly, many of their frontline leaders are actually former members of other radical political Islamist parties and therefore, secondly, their urge to activate themselves in politics—rather than religiosity—eventually became strong.
By selecting particular strands from religion, religious extremists in Bangladesh—in line with their global counterparts—have craft and empowered discourse on nationalism. Their very attempt of bringing the masses to the political stage shows how they have tried to mobilize the power of the people.
The triadic notion of combination of faith, patriotism and politics has ultimately created contradictions in the ideology of Bangladeshi nationhood. Dilemma of secular forces: wedged between global and local formats Ideologically, the secular forces in Bangladeshi politics—be it individuals or groups or parties—have always been pro-liberation in popular words, pro- muktijuddho.
The was predominantly fought under the fabric of Bangalee nationalism which was secular in nature. This secularism evolved from the collective secular mindset that resulted from the Language Movement in The bloody events of 21 February revived Bangalee cultural hegemonistic feeling—which for the first time united East Pakistani Bangalees under a secular umbrella.
According to Shamsul Alam, the Language Movement in East Pakistan played the major role in developing a Bangalee nationalist discourse. From the mids the dissatisfied and deprived masses found their greatest platform in Awami League under the sole leadership of Sheikh Mujibur Rahman. With grass roots support from both Muslims and Hindus, Awami League emerged as a mass political party—thus becoming the first political party in Pakistan to make a major breakthrough in regard to non- communal politics in the country.
What was more important, a devious imposition of Muslim identity on East Pakistani people was attempted by West Pakistani government as a pretense to conceal the Punjab-centric identity of the Pakistani state. Secularism, defined in plain terms, implies the reduction of the influence of primeval factors like religion, ethnicity, caste etc. As Maniruzzaman described, Sheikh Mujibur Rahman wanted to implement his own distinctive definition of secularism where he meant neither the absence of religion nor the denial of Islamic practices.
He viewed this strategy as a protective measure against Islamic extremism. His aim was to build a society based on national and public welfare that would negate communalism as a political force. He also firmly believed that the religious ideology of Islam could be retained within the spirit of secularism. In order to publicize this, he re-instated the old practice of daily recitals from holy books of different religions on national radio and television.
Religion, Nationalism and Politics in Bangladesh. South Asian Publishers, New Delhi. Revisiting Bangladeshi Nationhood debate. Secular politician and intellectuals, by and large, deemed the harmony between religiosity and secularism as an appeasement of Islamist forces.
And consequently, they started promoting and practicing religion-free attitudes and atheistic views. They could successfully implant this theory in public psyche that secularism implies an anti-religion system which promotes atheism, and its eventual goal is to demolish Islam from Bangladeshi soil.
The problem was further complicated by the gradual dysfunction of democratic and economic systems, uncontrolled corruption and cronyism under the Mujib government which led to widespread disillusionment among people. Thus, the seeds of pro-Muslim mindset were replanted in that regime. And with the disappearance of the colonial master, the thin covering of unity holding disparate communities together as nation soon starts giving way to more fragmentary tendencies.
The reasons are manifold. First, the left secular parties were engaged in ideological battles much before in two broad lines—pro-Moscow and pro-Peiking. And within these individual categories, there were numerous divisions along hardcore to softcore lines. Amid this turmoil of cluelessness, the communal parties started gaining strength in an organized manner.
Second, the rapid expansion of Qaomi Madrassas which has never been under governmental control along with stringent religiosity that they propagate gradually engulfed the grass roots sectors. Due to their apparently non- functional socio-political infrastructure and subsequently their blind adherence to bourgeois political forces—mainly Awami League, secularists lost credibility among the mass.
Third, the failure of the secularist forces had also lot to do with the inherent limitations of secularism itself. In fact the rationalists have been as contemptuous of religion as the believers have been of secularism. This attitude came under challenge in post-modernism where religious pluralism rather than rejection of religion is accepted.
Post-modernism recognizes the limitations of reason and accepts validity of religious ethos. That the progressive secular forces in Bangladesh got themselves trapped in the dilemma between postmodern secularism and religious pluralism evident from their failure to adjust with the ordinary religiosity of Bangladeshi Muslim mass.
And consequently, their ideological battle for national improvement suffered a setback. Revisiting Bangladeshi Nationhood Immediately after the brutal assassination of Sheikh Mujib on 15 August , his once-upon-a-time close associate Khondokar Moshtaque Ahmed took control of the country as President backed by the rebel Majors of Bangladesh Army.
They are popularly credited as two key architects of modern Bangladesh and the rule of each was ended by assassination. A section of black-and-white photographs depict the slain Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, the slain General Ziaur Rahman, plotters behind various coups, politicians and some photocopies of documents and an official gazette related to the many coups this South Asian country has suffered.
In its jacket, the book promises that it has "revealed" issues like who killed Mujib the first prime minister of Bangladesh , who was responsible for the jail killings in Bangladesh, and how General Zia was assassinated. Written in 13 chapters and an index, the book also contains a list of officers convicted by General Court Martial and hanged for the assassination of President Ziaur Rahman.
In a November preface to the book, Mascarenhas writes: On the 16th of December, , the state of Bangladesh population 70,, was born at the end of a nine-month liberation struggle in which more than a million Bengalis of the erstwhile East Pakistan died at the hands of the Pakistan army. But one of the 20th century's great man-made disasters is also among the greatest of its human triumphs in terms of a people's will for self-determination.
Mascarenhas describes his own book thus: It is based on my close personal knowledge of the main protagonists; on more than separate interviews with the men and women involved in the dramatic events; and on official archives and documents which I had the privilege to inspect personally.
The dialogue, whenever used, is a faithful reproduction of the words which my informants said they actually used during the events in which they were involved.
David Taylor, a South Asia expert, praises the book's "attention to detail and narrative" although he suggests that it is short on interpretation and treats certain episodes of lesser importance in "excessive length". There may be an earlier printing in It is devoted "to Yvonne and our children -- who have also paid the price".
A Bengali language translation of the book was released in the late s in Bangladesh, with the title Bangladesh: From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.Tajuddin immediately announced his retirement from politics.
All belongs to the Sheikh, who controlled events even from a prison cell thousands of miles away.
He asked the Pullman attendant for a new pack, shuffled the cards and began to deal. Dhaka: National Institute of Public Administration. Mujib's brotherin-law. The Sunday Times. As he rambled on Mujib warmed to the idea of what he was gomg to do to solve the problem. But in most cases their sin was to be in the wrong place-Le.