BIOLOGICAL WEAPONS PDF
Biological Weapons. Their threat, their control and the need for stakeholder involvement. Jean Pascal Zanders. Political Affairs Officer. United Nations Office for. The Biological Weapons Convention (BWC) effectively prohibits the development , production, acquisition, transfer, stockpiling and use of biological and toxin. Biological warfare is the intentional use of micro- organisms, and toxins, generally of microbial, plant or animal origin to produce disease and death in humans.
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create biological weapons, will be one of the gravest threats we will face. future capabilities of genetic engineering and biological warfare. 2 United Nations () Chemical and bacreriological (biological) weapons and the The possible effects of chemical and biological weapons are subject to a. Nevertheless, there are numerous remaining gaps, and closer inspection indicates that some supposed uses of biological weapons never took place or are.
Implications for Terrorism Response Amy L. Dean A. Cite this: Abstract We investigate the impact on effective terrorism response of the viability degradation of biological weapons agents in the environment. Joseph P.
Wood Alden Charles Adrion. Updating a B. Tao Hong and Patrick L. Christos D. Kovalets , Konstantinos E. Scientific Reports 8 1 ,. Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology 27 2 , Swart , P. Droogers , A. Heederik , A. Aerobiologia 32 4 , Van Leuken , A. Swart , A.
Havelaar , A. Van Pul , W. Van der Hoek , D. Microbial Risk Analysis 1 , International Journal of Health Geographics 14 ,. Handler , Jason M. Aerosol Science and Technology 49 , Wood , Kathryn M. Meyer , Thomas J. Kelly , Young W. Choi , James V. Rogers , Karen B. Riggs , Zachary J. Egan , I. Journal of The Royal Society Interface 12 , Worth Calfee , Morgan Wendling. Science of The Total Environment , Worth Calfee , M.
Letters in Applied Microbiology 54 6 , Joseph R. Egan , Ian M. Hall , Steve Leach. How do Heydrich almost certainly died of sepsis.
1972 Biological Weapons Convention
In contrast, Nazi Germany did not en- descriptions of particular incidents or allegations, due in gage in BW, and Adolph Hitler appears to have re- part to the continued classification of official documents. Understanding this contrast when some material becomes available it rarely tells the might provide important insights into the motiva- whole story.
Use of biological agents against the Germans by the Nowhere is the problem more evident than in trying to Polish resistance: The evidence for terrorist attacks by document the history of the programs. Since the end of the the Polish resistance seems strong, but little is known Cold War, the full scope and sophistication of the Soviet about it. Researching this episode would require biological weapons program has become increasingly evi- someone with fluency in Polish and German.
Of special importance is a book by Milton Leitenberg 4. There seem to be credible claims that partisans Program. However, only one scholar has looked into logical weapons capabilities, and it is an indispensable re- them, and there is little in English about them. Two books, 5. The Italian biological weapons program and the coauthored by former participants in the program, Ken Abyssinia War: Is there tives.
The secrecy that 6. Al- continues to surround Soviet activity explains why they had though no BW is associated with this incident, it is to largely ignore the roles of the Ministry of Agriculture, the important simply because it is the only concept of use Ministry of Health, the intelligence services, and offensive originating with a nonstate actor known to exist. It also activities of the Ministry of Defense. The emergence of biocrimes in the early 20th century: Thus, the CIA had destroyed the The story of biocrimes in the first half of the 20th documents related to its clandestine program for develop- century remains largely unwritten.
The only accounts ing biological agents, as documented by the Church draw primarily on English and Japanese language Committee in the s, while the US Army also destroyed sources.
It seems clear that research by scholars fa- many of its most sensitive documents. A significant amount miliar with other languages will uncover additional of material remains classified, or unclassified but releasable examples. Ultimately, it would be useful to get a ho- only within the government, due to concerns that the re- listic sense as to why biocrimes emerged, apparently lease of technical details related to biological weapons de- largely disappearing in the years after World War II.
Anarchist reactions to ideas of BW: It would be advances made by the United States and the Soviet Union helpful to understand better why the idea of biological revolutionized BW. Although the foundations of this work terrorism would interest anarchist theoreticians, and were laid during the early s, it was not until the s why those ideas apparently had no practical impact. As the United States demonstrated in its Large Area Coverage LAC exercises, biological agents The Late 20th and Early 21st Centuries properly prepared and disseminated could have effects that matched or exceeded those of thermonuclear weapons.
In contrast, they terrorism, and a number of attempted and successful have been used primarily by nonstate actors, but only in criminal cases.
Despite its theoretical capabilities, or perhaps lacked the requisite scientific expertise, and that unnamed because of them, no country has attempted large-scale BW, outside forces the United States? In the Rather, the period to present has seen false end, however, he had to admit that he had no concrete accusations, a few credible clandestine operations by state evidence for any of his allegations. This promises to State Use of BW provide considerable new information on Rhodesian ac- There are several documented instances of BW use by tivities and to clarify many of the remaining uncertainties.
In fact, biological agents during the apartheid period. There are all used techniques not dissimilar from those that were several good accounts of the South African effort to develop available at the beginning of the 20th century. These are reviewed in the book by Gould biological agents. It seems widely agreed that the Rhode- and Peter Folb, which lists the reported agents stocked by sians dispensed V. These operations are discussed in several litensis and what little is known of their use.
Reportedly, accounts, but a complete summary of the available infor- the South Africans used 1 of 32 containers of V.
Sugar contami- Gould and Peter Folb. Unfortunately, the South African gov- started among cattle belonging to blacks and then spread to ernment has refused to clarify this past use, even to the the human population starting in November and extent of falsely reporting that their country never had an continuing through at least October Some Nass, who was the first to argue that it was intentionally as yet unsubstantiated claims contend that surplus Rho- caused, outlined evidence supporting her views in 2 articles, desian materials—largely organophosphate-contaminated both heavily researched but neither published in a peer- clothing and poisoned foodstuffs—were used by South reviewed scientific publication.
Less clear is the impact of the attacks, as studies that might prove or disprove her thesis. It is unclear there is no evidence that BW operations, which focused on why the government of Zimbabwe chose not to investigate water contamination, caused any disease outbreaks. Stamps also linked outbreaks from Ebola virus, Mar- April-May, Generally, such assassinations relied Minnesota Patriots Council describe real incidents that did on chemicals, but poisons of biological origin also have been not amount to very much.
Only on occasion have pathogens been employed. Ac- Aum Shinrikyo. Although it is often asserted that particularly valuable because of its analytic framework, pro- ricin was used, the forensics examination could not identify viding some convincing insights into the organizational and the poison used.
Rather, the pathologists guessed that the cultural obstacles facing terrorist organizations, even when poison involved was ricin, based on clinical symptoms. It Most recently, a Bulgarian journalist has obtained access to would be interesting to see if those insights might apply to archives of the Communist-era Bulgarian State Security other groups, especially the Rajneeshees and al Qaida.
Biological Weapons Proliferation: Reasons for Concern, Courses of Action
Service and published 2 books based on that information. At least 2 of the subjects of essays in the Tucker volume Unfortunately, it appears that key operational documents merit additional attention, if only because they illustrate the were destroyed, so we know little more about how the op- problems confronting those trying to write contemporary eration was conducted than before.
Terence Taylor and Tim Trevan, both respected BW aspects of this case, and others like it, may never be known. The authors mention that a Ger- pathogens causing smallpox, influenza, tuberculosis, and man prosecutor publicly supported the allegation at the time, measles.
All currently live in Germany, and one would study that it deserves. In the end, Taylor and Trevan almost clearly identify the responsible parties. Nonetheless, the Nonstate Use whole story still raises interesting questions about the possible There is an enormous literature covering almost all aspects deliberate fabrication of stories intended to denigrate or raise of bioterrorism during the period since , but little is fears about terrorist groups.
This is butions. This reflects the reality that there have been few one of the few confirmed bioterrorism incidents and the documented instances of terrorist interest in biological one that caused the most casualties.
The account in my agents and even fewer documented cases of bioterrorism. There gations, while other studies demonstrate the reality of is certainly additional detail in FBI files.
United States biological weapons program
Moreover, none of others. As a result, this is an essential resource for anyone the authors actually interviewed any of the perpetrators. The essays on R. One of the more interesting is re- station with latex from either Synadenium grantii or another lated to claims that Jewish resistance fighters who survived plant in the same family.
There apparently were other similar World War II sought biological agents to use against incidents. Some involved use of arsenic, but in other instances German cities. Perhaps more significant is a case programs, at least 2 of the Israeli scientists contacted by that I also mention: Unfortunately, I weapons program, a fact not mentioned by Sprinzak.
This is another more attention. In some instances, the ricin was United States in late The Amerithrax case, the FBI found in letters mailed to intended victims. These incidents name for its investigation, is without doubt the most thor- have received considerable press coverage but much less oughly reported incident of illicit biological agent employ- attention in the analytic literature. The best survey of these ment. Attributed by government officials to a biodefense incidents, putting them into context, may be a polemical researcher, Dr.
Bruce Ivins, it remains controversial. The best article by George Smith that discounts the significance of single account is probably American Anthrax, written by ricin as a biological threat. It clearly goes well beyond earlier accounts.
Communist bloc claims that the of technical articles, including clinical descriptions, United States employed BW in the Korean War and the US epidemiologic studies, and scientific analyses. These are received considerable attention, due in part to the emphasis not the only such allegations, only the best known.
As he perpetrator had to have used a specific B. In contrast, Erhard vinced skeptics that they correctly identified the perpetrator. Geissler examined Stasi records and discounts the impor- There are numerous other claimed uses or plans to em- tance of the East German role.
Both agree that there was a ploy biological agents by terrorists and criminals, some disinformation campaign, but they disagree about its ef- more serious than others.
The following examples are taken fectiveness. For example, the Libyan government claimed foreign use, but they believe that the Cubans may have had plau- medical workers mostly Bulgarians deliberately caused an sible reasons to suspect that the United States was respon- HIV outbreak at a pediatric hospital, causing some sible for at least 2 animal epidemics.
To prove their claims, the dicted their desire to divert blame from the incompetence Chinese supported an investigation by sympathetic foreign of their own medical system.
Chaired by the noted scholar of Chinese ricated out of whole cloth or based on scientifically un- technology, Joseph Needham, the Commission not sur- tenable evidence—the topic merits greater attention.
The prisingly fully supported the allegations. Plots to use BW to retaliate against the Germans by and Wheelis argue that the allegations coming from the Jewish survivors of the Holocaust: There is clearly more North Koreans were scientifically implausible, but that at to the story of the Avengers, and it would be helpful for least one set of allegations from the Chinese, involving cases someone to dissect the available sources to give an ac- of anthrax, were scientifically valid, even if it is doubtful count of what was planned and why it was disrupted.
Israeli and pre-independence Haganah use of biolog- Some Sinologists continue to accept the possibility that ical agents in It is unclear how much more can be the allegations may be true,,, although they tend added to the research of Avner Cohen, but as one of the to distance themselves from the writings of Endicott and few examples of BW, it merits at least some attention.
The covert BW capabilities of the United States, as BW, such as Jeffrey Lockwood in his study of insects as developed by the CIA for clandestine operations and weapons, are remarkably uncritical in reviewing the whole the special forces for covert military operations: The matter.
US military arthropod effort began only after the Korean 4. Soviet bloc allegations of Western and especially US War. History of Rhodesian BW: Most available evidence would be extremely helpful in BW experts, including Elisa Harris, Matthew Meselson, and clarifying this obscure aspect of the history of BW. Julian Perry Robinson, either reject the allegation, or 6.
Additional studies of false allegations of BW: Much find it open to dispute. Ricin incidents: There have been many instances, recurs through time and across cultures. Nevertheless, his effort to make use of the insights offered by evolutionary social sciences hints at the possibilities for a richer set of studies.
Topical Areas Third, relatively little has been written on the evolving role of BW science and technology. Malcolm Dando wrote Some of the most interesting BW histories address relatively an article that hints at the possibilities for research in this narrow topics. Several topics that merit additional work are arena.
Given the hyperbolic policymakers understand how we should think about con- language often employed when describing capabilities to temporary bioterrorism concerns. Only a few studies look employ BW, these studies help put into context the into fears of intentional biological agent use.
Samuel K. Cohn reviewed reactions to the arrival of the Black Death in Fourth, more could be done by exploring in depth spe- 14th century Europe and highlighted the pathological sca- cific forms of BW.
The potential value of such accounts is pegoating that resulted. Keremidis et al identified only 4 instances of Army and pro-rebel communities. Cohn also has shown that reactions be possible to obtain more information about what hap- to epidemics can vary widely and do not inevitably pened and why.
Although the technical The utility of such studies is indicated by the research of obstacles to the use of biological agents are not trivial, it is Furmanski, who has examined fears of hostile BW and doubtful that these obstacles alone have prevented resort to shown how unwarranted concerns have led to investments BW.
Other factors, and not just moral and ethical consid- in both biological defenses and offensive biological warfare erations, undoubtedly were important in decisions to de- capabilities. Putting these accepted taboo against causing intentional disease. Sur- decisions into a historical perspective might be difficult, prisingly, given how often the existence of such a norm is given the gaps in our existing knowledge, but would con- mentioned, the topic has received relatively little serious tribute to an understanding of the real dangers posed by BW.
Cole provocatively put the issue in the context of evolutionary biology. Fears of intentional disease: There is a long history in the risk. Americans during the Seven Years War, arguing that British Such fears arose episodically in both the Native Ameri- commanders knew that their actions transgressed accept- can and European populations.
Development of norms against BW: Given the tudes toward poisons, including an attempt to explore the widespread belief that a taboo against intentional issue through the lens of E. The role of science and technology in the evolution of BW: The potentialities of BW are defined by scientific and technological possibilities.
The uses Acknowledgments and failed uses of BW require some understanding of those possibilities. The author is indebted to the anonymous reviewers who 4.
Reasons for the use or nonuse of biological weapons: In addition, It is striking how relatively little BW there has been, he would like to thank John van Courtland Moon and the despite the growing mastery of biological sciences other participants of a not-for-attribution session on gaps in that have made biological weapons increasingly ac- the history of biological warfare at the Chemical and Bio- cessible.
Yet, some people have sought to employ logical Warfare workshop, held November 7, , in them. BW sarily reflect those of the National Defense University or the has occurred, although few of the allegations are provable Department of Defense. First, the available lists of actual and alleged instances 1. Rosebury T. Some historical considerations.
Bull At Sci of BW are unsatisfactory. They often include events that Jun;16 6: Stockholm International Peace Research Institute. The Problem limited or unpersuasive. Possible Disarmament Measures. Volume 1: New York: Humanities Press; History of biological warfare: It is particularly disturbing that the largest effort pults to capsomeres.
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We also can document that fears Material Command; Uniformed Services University of the of intentional disease are not new. The implications of these Health Sciences; Historical overview of biological In closing, it is worth noting that while numerous articles warfare. Washington, DC: For those seeking a short history of BW, however, the best 8. Feces, dead horses, and fleas: Morse,13 which covers evolution of the hostile use of biological agents.
West J Med all forms of biological warfare despite its title , and a book ; 6: Martin and his coauthors. Metcalfe N. A short history of biological warfare. Med Confl does not appear to be a book-length history of BW. Given Surviv ;18 3: The Clinical and Forensic Perspectives. Sudbury, MA: Jones and history and threat of biological warfare and terrorism. Emerg Bartlett Publishers; Med Clin North Am May;20 2: Management of Frischknecht F.
The history of biological warfare. EMBO Rep acute strychnine poisoning. Riedel S. Biological warfare and bioterrorism: Stevenson WS. Notes on a case of tetanic spasm with ref- review. Morse SA. Historical perspectives of microbial bioterrorism. Br Med J Apr 24;1 Micro- Springer; Koblentz GD. Living Weapons: Biological Warfare and In- Dembek ZF. The history and threat of biological warfare and ternational Security. Cornell University Press; McIsaac JH, ed.
Preparing Hospitals for Terrorism, War, or Bioterror: A Medical and Biomedical Systems Approach. Bos- Disease?: Unraveling the Use of Biological Weapons. Stanford, ton: Elsevier Academic Press; Stanford Security Studies; History of bio- Toward a system logical weapons: Dembek ZF, ed. Medical Aspects of Biological tation of evidence. Appl Environ Microbiol May;71 5: Office of the Surgeon General, United States Army; Keim P. Microbial Forensics: A Scientific Assessment.
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Morse,13 which covers evolution of the hostile use of biological agents. Dembek ZF, ed. Biological warfare at the siege of Caffa. Accordingly, it is not a surprise The incident thus constitutes the first well- either that Native Americans might have been the target of documented instance of deliberate spread of an infectious BW or that they would fear infectious disease.
Why is an eBook better than a PDF? The most there is documented use of iron arrowheads coated with recent identified by this author are 2 studies undertaken by poison. One incorporated several toxins, as well as contaminated with the blood of leprosy patients. Fort Detrick, Maryland: An ebook is one of two file formats that are intended to be used with e-reader devices and apps such as Amazon Kindle or Apple iBooks.
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