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The Moderate Response by Muslim Intellectuals. Bibliography Magazines, Newspapers, Websites. In he was appointed Lecturer in the same faculty and in he was transferred to the Faculty of Adab Arts of the same institute. Zulkifli publishes widely in both English and Indonesian. Acknowledgements This publication has grown out of an academic endeavour that has been nourished by the support, suggestions and advice from individuals and institutions to whom I am indebted.
I wish I could mention them all. I shall record the great debt to INIS Indonesia-Netherlands Cooperation in Islamic Studies for the scholarship and facilities that enabled me to conduct research and academic activities. Jacob Vredenbregt in Jakarta. My gratitude is also expressed to the International Institute for Asian Studies IIAS for its programs and academic atmosphere that enabled me to increase my academic quality and extend my scholarly network.
They provided me the chance to interview them, use their collections and even participate in a variety of their activities. Without their permission and cooperation this present work would not have been completed.
I also thank my fellow Indonesian scholars in Leiden. They assisted me in their own ways, which were important for my life in Leiden. Last, but not least, I thank my wife, Ai Juariah, my daughter Dhea UZ and my son Azka KZ who gave me the moral support to finish this thesis which is dedicated to them. Leiden-Sukabumi, It is the first comprehensive scholarly examination in English of the development of Shiism in Indonesia.
Since Islam in Indonesia is overwhelmingly Sunni, this development of Shiism in a predominantly Sunni context is a remarkable phenomenon that calls for careful, critical investigation. Zulkifli has provided precisely this much needed investigation. His work offers both a starting point for understanding and a foundation for future research.
This book gives evidence of a depth of engaged, sympathetic research on and among the key figures who were critically involved in the development of Shiism in Indonesia and on their social and intellectual backgrounds. Appropriately, in his discussion, Zulkifli provides a succinct outline of contrasts with Sunni ideas and practice. Besides its general discussion, this thesis focused specifically on Pesantren Tarekat Suryalaya in Tasikmalaya in West Java. For me personally, it is a special privilege to be able to recommend this work, as I recommended his earlier work, to a wider audience.
I regard this book as a work of great value and significance for the continuing understanding of the richness and complexity of Indonesian Islam. A Note on Transliteration For Arabic terminology I have used the system of transliteration adopted by the International Journal of Middle East Studies but diacritics have been reduced for simplification.
In the matter of personal names, I follow exactly the way they are written by themselves or as they appear in the sources that I cite. Glossary abangan: Javanese nominal Muslims adat: Islamic jurisprudence Golkar: Malay historical tale or account HMI: International Center for Islamic Studies xviii. Muslim preacher Muhammadiyah: Indonesian Democratic Party of Struggle pengajian: Persatuan Islam [Islamic Association]; strict reformist Muslim organization, founded in pesantren: Javanese nobility, member of the Javanese official administrative class xxi.
Islamic law SMU Plus: Muslim religious scholars wali: This is a madhhab, or school of Islamic jurisprudence which venerates the twelve Imams who succeeded the Prophet Muhammad and has adopted a specific set of practices as a consequence of its belief system.
Scholars, not only in the Muslim world but also in the West, have generally focussed their attention on Sunnism. Fatimi Jamil quoted in Hasyimi and Azra Hasyimi Azmi Atjeh , Sunyoto n. Atjeh Kern Sunnism began to spread and exert influence on the Perlak population.
Both territories had their own kings. It is suggested that the two kingdoms were united in the face of an attack from the kingdom of Sriwijaya to the south.
Sriwijaya ceased its attack and the Sunni Perlak sultanate continued to exist until its collapse in He admits, however, that in contrast to these two saints, the majority of Wali Sanga expounded Sunni Islam.
A moderate figure, Sunan Bonang attempted to bridge the two opposing groups. Many studies such as Salam , Sunyoto n. This doctrine, also adhered to by the Persian Sufi martyr Mansur al-Hallaj d. Muhaimin suggests that Siti Jenar came to Java from Baghdad and is said to have converted a number of rulers and their subjects on the island. In the narrow sense, it refers to the decorated portable cenotaphs carried in procession during the observance.
It provides strong proof not only of the strong links between Malay and Persian literature, but no less of the heretical character of early Indonesian Islam. After the death of Muhammad bin alHanafiyya, the Kaysaniyya split into a number of groups. This very limited study, which is based on synopses from old manuscripts catalogues, can only produce a general statement rather than a definitive conclusion.
They point to the fact that a great number of sultans in Aceh used the title of Sayyid. Al-Aidid then travelled to Goa, where he met with opposition from the ruler, so he moved back to Cikoang, where he converted the pagan nobility and population.
His arrival is still commemorated every year on the occasion of the Mawlid festival which celebrates the birth of the Prophet. They point to the leading historical figure, Ahmad al-Muhajir, of the 8th generation after Ali and his grandson, Alawi bin Ubaidillah who, after performing the hajj in , left Basrah for Yemen. The Sayyids in Southeast Asia mainly came from Yemen. In his view, the principal weakness of the above writers, particularly Jamil, Hasjmi and Parlindungan54 is their uncritical and unverified use of local sources and their comparison with other contemporary sources, specifically with regard to historical developments in the wider world of Islam during the period in question.
Al-Baqir Pelras Ibrahim For a full description of this practice, see Chapter Three. Parlindungan Azra A great number of early texts are translations or adaptations of Persian originals. Even the Taj al-Salatin Crown of the Sultans , one of the earliest historical works in Malay, is a translation of a lost Persian original that may have been brought to the archipelago from India. Similarly, another important Malay history entitled Sejarah Melayu The Malay Annals includes a great number of Persian verses and contains terminology foreign to Malay-Indonesian.
Zainuddin et al. This is a draft PhD thesis examined in ujian tertutup examinations not open to the public in by the Graduate Programme, UIN Jakarta, but was not promoted until April , when I received a copy of the thesis. I thank Prof. Azyumardi Azra for informing me of its existence and his attempts to make a copy available to me. I also thank Fuad Jabali and Idzam Fautanu for their assistance. Methodology This study is based on fieldwork and library research. Two periods of fieldwork, both lasting eight months, were conducted in several cities and towns in Indonesia, including Jakarta and Bandung.
Each period lasted eight months: I also gathered information from the websites of organisations and institutions. Goffman classifies three types of stigma: The Structure of the Study This study is presented in nine chapters, in addition to the introduction. An historical account of its establishment, its ideological foundations and its development are presented in this chapter.
This is followed by an examination of the moderate attitudes of Chapter Nine provides the conclusion to this study.
Several years ago the Lebanese scholar Muhammad Jawad Mughniyya d. It is almost impossible for researchers to provide the quantitative data necessary to produce reliable statistics.
Mughniyya Nurjulianti and Subhan Since this period there have been close relations between the Hadramaut, the Yemeni region in the South Arabian Peninsula and the Malay-Indonesian world. Riddell suggests that European visitors to the Hadramaut in the early decades of the 20th century witnessed extensive contacts with the Malay world.
He regards this period — one of an intensified increase in Arab emigration due to economic stress and political tensions - as a turning point for Hadramis, both in their country of origin and in Southeast Asia. In fact, the majority of them were, and still are, Sunni. A number of them were even assumed to be Sunni scholars and leaders, since they had considerable knowledge of Sunni teachings and were involved in the religious life of the community at large.
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This may have been due to the practice of taqiyya, the permitted concealment of true faith. Some were recognised as professors of Sunni law, served as legal authorities in Sunni circles and wrote books within the Sunni tradition Stewart Very little is known about the early life of this figure. We are informed that he was born in Qereh, in the Hadramaut, Yemen, around and received a religious education in his homeland. He was engaged in teaching and propagating Islamic teachings in various religious gatherings in Surabaya, Bondowoso and other towns in East Java, in Pekalongan, Central Java and in Bogor and Batavia, now Jakarta.
For instance, he was said to have been critical of the al-Sahih of Bukhari, the most authoritative Sunni collection of Hadith. These works, however, were never published. Widely known as Ali Menteng, he was one of the leading Arab figures in the Dutch East Indies at the end of the 19th and the first half of the 20th centuries. He convinced the British to use their control over the ports of India and Singapore and prohibit the travel of followers of AlIrsyad to the Hadramaut and to intercept their money remittances home.
Apparently he was relatively successful in this regard, as Al-Irsyad people had difficulty visiting the Hadramaut when the British government refused to grant them entry.
Their relatives in the Hadramaut also faced similar obstacles. As a result of this mission, three Sayyid boys, his own son, Abdulmutallib, Abdurrahman al-Aydrus and Muhammad bin Abdullah al-Attas entered the Galatasary Lyceum, a modern educational establishment in Istanbul.
In his contributions to al-Manar he suggested that modern schools should be established in the Hadramaut. Other studies regarding the conflict include Noer , Kostiner , Haikal and De Jonge From the lateth century onwards a number of wealthy Sayyids sent their children to Constantinople to pursue their education.
In , four Arab boys from Java arrived in Constantinople, which became a cause of consternation among the Dutch colonial authorities. The Dutch, fearing the influence of pan-Islam, urged the Turkish government to discourage people from Java from studying in Constantinople. In response, the Turkish government rejected a request from the ConsulGeneral in Batavia for 30 boys from Batavia and Singapore to be sent to Constantinople Van Dijk In spite of this, the following two years saw the number of boys from Java studying in Constantinople Ali Ahmad Shahab had many disciples to whom he granted the licence to practice and teach certain prayers, including prayers transmitted through the purified Imams.
Grant mercy to the most glad of your creatures, who is our Prophet Muhammad, his household as the ship of salvation and to all propagating Imams. Born in Surabaya in , he first studied Islamic knowledge with his father.
In this period, Aqil al-Jufri probably adhered to Sunnism. However, their studies were not successful because of a lack of preparatory education in the Netherlands-Indies. By , only eight students remained in Constantinople. Four had died, two had returned to Asia, two had travelled to other countries in Europe and one was missing Van Dijk A number of Indonesian students, including Shaykh Mahfuz al-Tirmisi d.
It is a well-known text in the Sunni Muslim world. Subsequently, he moved to Mecca and stayed there until , at which point he returned to his home town, Surabaya, where he remained until his death in He was also known for his charitable concern for the poor.
Abu Bakr bin Shahab wrote a large number of books dealing with various branches of knowledge and some collections of poetry. He stayed for some time in Surabaya and Singapore for business and to visit relatives, as well as to teach. Like his teacher, he was a travelling merchant and scholar. He visited Southeast Asia and stayed for a relatively long period in Singapore. In March , together with Hasan bin Shahab and other Sayyid leaders, he engaged in the reorganisation of the management of al-Imam, an influential reformist magazine, and was appointed the managing director of the company.
The book received public acclaim from Abu Bakr bin Shahab. This is a tradition not present in Sunni Islam. In addition, bin Aqil had two criticisms of Sunnism. First, he criticised consensus in the four Sunni schools of jurisprudence under the rule of tyrannical kings. The author mentions one of the reasons why he wrote the book, namely the fact that many of his fellow Muslims requested him to write a Abubakar Atjeh wrote: With regard to his role, Muhammad Asad Shahab wrote: In the latest years the ceremony has been carried out in the house of Sayyid Hasyim bin Muhammad Assegaf, one of the Imamiyya leaders.
Today he has reached the age of eighty but he is still very healthy. The biography of Our Hero, Master of the Faithful, Imam Ali upon him be peace and Arabic poems qasida are read and sermons are delivered. Then a meal is served. Most followers are the descendants of the aforementioned figures and their relatives.
From the alMuhdar clan we find two children of Muhammad al-Muhdar, who are known as ustadhs. The best known figures of the Shahab clan are Muhammad Dhiya Shahab d. Muhammad Dhiya Shahab was a teacher, journalist and writer. From to he worked at the Department of Information. Muhammad Asad Shahab was also a journalist and prolific writer. From , he was a correspondent for several newspapers.
In APB merged with the national news agency institute, Antara because President Sukarno wanted a single news agency in the country. Its last goal was to send students to pursue an Islamic education in the Middle East.
Similarly, the Grand Ayatollah Muhsin al-Hakim d. Published in , this was the first sympathetic book on the madhhab to be written in Indonesian. However, according to Asad Shahab, a variety of reasons, including strict regulations on visas to go abroad, meant that this opportunity could not be fully utilized at the time. His itinerary included a visit to the al-Khairiyya school in Bondowoso. Hamzah Al-Habsyi told me that the discussions lasted for four days.
Three figures are worthy of mention in this regard. He established contacts with an Islamic foundation in Tehran called the Muslim Brotherhood. It should be noted however that while this group pioneered the sending of students to Qum, quantitatively speaking, students from other ethnic groups now outnumber them.
Another renowned figure, although reluctant to accept his status, is Abdurrahman Bima, who leads the Madina Ilmu College for Islamic Studies, a tertiary educational institution located in Depok, South Jakarta. For example, Hasan Dalil, who finished his undergraduate programme in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, took a three-month training programme in Qum. It is unclear exactly when Indonesian students began to pursue an Islamic education in Qum, but it is known that some did so several years before the Iranian revolution.
They were Arabs living in various parts of the Indonesian archipelago. Of the original 10 students, almost all of whom were Arabs, six were alumni of YAPI while four were from other educational institutions.
Over the course of time, the educational background of the Indonesian students studying in Qum has become diversified.
While most students generally go to Qum to complete their secondary education, of late several graduates of tertiary education have also continued their studies there. We also find graduates of secular universities studying in Qum. Hashem travelled to Qum in to engage in the study of religious knowledge.
By , 50 Indonesian students had reportedly completed their studies or were still studying there. Ten years later the Qum graduates in Indonesia numbered more than a hundred. In , 50 Indonesian students were selected to continue their studies in Qum73 and in , I am informed, 90 more students were selected.
In addition to academic achievement, the knowledge of Arabic is a requisite, as it is an international language for Islamic learning and the language of instruction at certain madrasas in Qum. Each subject has its own standard texts,76 which are studied in halaqat, or study circles under the supervision of an ayatollah. The educational programme comprises three levels: This student association was established in August http: At the preliminary stage, which lasts from three to five years, the emphasis is to provide students with various skills in Arabic.
The main subjects taught include nahw, sarf, balagha and mantiq. The teaching method at this level involves groups of students gathered around a teacher who will go through the texts with them. Generally, courses are a series of lectures based on the main texts of the two main subjects and students are free to select which lectures to attend. The students may also attend lectures in the optional subjects. Usually, teachers at this level are mujtahids who have just achieved the authority of ijtihad and are establishing a reputation.
Teaching is conducted by the prominent mujtahids who inform students of the schedule and places for their class. Students are free to choose whose class they will attend and it is usual for several hundred participants, including other mujtahids, to attend lectures delivered by the most prominent mujtahids.
The dialectical method is generally implemented in the class; students are free to discuss and are encouraged to argue points with the teacher. At this stage, most students are accomplished in the skill of abstract argumentation and are trained to develop their self-confidence. The culmination of the learning process is the attainment of an ijaza licence from one of the many recognised mujtahids. A student at this level is expected to write a treatise on fiqh or usul al-fiqh and present it to a mujtahid, who will consider the student and the work.
Based on. The usual term for an aspiring mujtahid is hujjat al-Islam proof of Islam. The madrasa system is a transformation of the classical system, adopting a modern system of education in terms of gradation, curriculum, classroom learning and rules. Unlike the traditional system, the madrasa system is not intended to train students to become mujtahids but rather to become Islamic scholars and missionaries. Many international students, including Indonesians, undertake this modern programme.
The Madrasa Imam Khomeini, for example, offers programmes based on grade systems that include undergraduate and graduate levels equivalent to the tertiary education of the modern educational system. Indonesian students have been through both educational systems. The language of instruction was Arabic. Dar al-Tabligh did not follow the traditional system of learning, even though it was strongly entrenched in the traditional hawza system. Since nearly all of the Indonesian students who have gone to Iran attended Madrasa Hujjatiyya, including the prominent ustadh Husein Shahab, who transferred to this madrasa after he had studied for two years at Dar al-Tabligh.
This madrasa was founded in during the reign of Sultan Husayn of the Safavid dynasty. Their circulation was extensive; Maktab-i Islam reached a circulation of 60, With its circulation abroad al-Hadi served a link to Muslims and Islamic institutions in other countries Fischer He spent nine years in Qum. After finishing his muqaddamat in , he pursued the sutuh level and completed the study of usul al-fiqh at the dars al-kharij. He was required to write a PhD thesis for this institute Ali Since , this madrasa has been organised to become the main educational centre for international students.
Established after the death of leader of the Iranian revolution, it runs a modern system of education in terms of programmes and curriculum, even though it remains entrenched in the traditional character of the hawza system. It organises both undergraduate and graduate programmes in various fields of specialisation within the realm of religious sciences. Another important figure was K. Early in his career he worked closely with members of the Hadrami community in the Dutch East Indies.
Before studying in Egypt from to , both he and his brother, Abdurrahman had been teachers at the Hadramaut School in Surabaya. Aside from his teaching, K. He led the aforementioned Islamic Research Institute and its periodical, Pembina for ten years In this weekly magazine he provided regular commentary on religion, discussing aspects of Islamic teachings such as jurisprudence, ethics and Sufism.
He wrote a number of books, some of which are not published, and has also translated a selection of works by the famous Persian philosopher and Sufi al-Ghazali After , he devoted his life to teaching at his own Islamic foundations in Bogor, West Java: Having described several versions of the Hadith from the Sunni collections, he affirms that they are all valid.
He goes on to point out that the Hadith of thaqalayn clearly designates that the faithful should acknowledge the leadership of the Prophet Muhammad. Salam In fact, many Indonesian Muslim scholars who followed the historical events occurring in Iran during , particularly through the mass media,99 have remained Sunni. Amien Rais. This prominent modernist religious scholar paid great attention to what was happening in Iran at the time.
In early , for instance, his weekly magazine, Panji Masyarakat Banner of Society provided detailed reports, combined with reflective views crediting and supporting the revolution.
Hamka regards it as one of the greatest historical events in the world and relates it to the phenomenon of Islamic revival in the 15th century of the Muslim calendar. For Hamka, the Iranian revolution is parallel with other great revolutions in the world, such as the French and Russian revolutions. He believes the most important value of the revolution is the success of the Iranians in fighting secularism.
Initially, Hamka presented his appraisal and admiration of events to Ayatollah Ruhullah Khomeini in his writings published in Panji Masyarakat. In it he provides a theoretical outline of why a revolution takes place, pinpointing five causal factors: He suggests that such examples are valuable lessons for every nation, including Indonesia Rais In this long article, Rais This is followed by an analysis of the social and political problems faced by Iran, including the Iran-Iraq war.
He is highly critical of negative views suggesting a future disintegration of Iran. The failure of the Islamic Republic of Iran is not an option for Rais, as this would mean a setback for the Muslim umma to last half a century or more.
In another article however he states that: Besides lecturing in Islamic educational institutions he has written several scholarly works. With regard to Muslim responses to the USA and the Soviet Union, Rais again praises the Iranian revolution, which has attempted to restore the self-confidence of the Iranians, freeing them from the influence of the superpowers.
Collections of articles written by them can be seen in Rusydi Hamka and Iqbal E. Saimima eds n. In Malaysia Muzaffar points out that the Iranian revolution has two meanings for the Islamic resurgence there. First, it proves the ability of Islam to establish a state in the modern era while at the same time answering criticism posed by scholars or leaders who reject the idea of an Islamic state.
What Muzaffar singles out is the fact that in Iran the imams and religious elites played a major role in the politics and administration of the state and in implementing Islamic law Muzaffar On the rapid growth of Islamic revival among university students in Malaysia see Anwar It was developed by Imaduddin Abdulrahim, who was heavily influenced by the ideas of Hasan al-Bana d. In Indonesia, a number of individuals, university lecturers and students, who were initially impressed with the ideas of Islamic revolution, used various publications to focus discourse on the Iranian case.
He completed his primary and secondary education at the Diponegoro Islamic School, co-founded by his father. In , he was enrolled in the Physics Department. Rasjidi d. As a consequence, Agus Abubakar was forbidden to conduct religious gatherings at the mosque and dismissed from his leadership of student organisations.
However, this did not reduce his missionary zeal. Agus Abubakar was one of their guides. To achieve these goals, the group carried out discussions, training and other activities. In addition, at Islamic institutions of higher learning the students continue to gain comprehensive religious knowledge, regardless of which department they choose to study in. The educational curricula are mainly Sunni. That said, the ideas of Islamic renewal promoted by the late Harun Nasution , Nurcholish Madjid and others have had some impact.
There are two others: They have tried to establish contact with one another for a number of reasons, not least that it is natural to seek connection with other members of the same religious denomination. Rakhmat regards Al-Habsyi as his religious preceptor. Also, those converts of a religious-oriented background come from both traditionalist and reformist Muslim streams and from the mainstream community, as well as from minority Muslim sects.
These are minority Muslims whom the Sunni majority consider to believe and practice heterodox teachings of Islam. On the whole, they continue to occupy an important position within their new group of converts, despite having been dismissed from their original sect. With regards to political orientation, this group fully supported Golkar, the party of the New Order government. For a description of this group, see Marzani Anwar As its name suggests, it is founded by one Isa Bugis from Aceh.
It has spread throughout the country in both urban and rural areas. This can also be seen in Al-Chaidar and Umar Abduh The final element consists of, as Syamsuri Ali observes, former members of the Isa Bugis group who may be found in Jakarta. The third mode is through the reading of Islamic literature.
As described above, some have pursued Islamic learning in Qum and returned as famous ustadhs. Conversion during study in Qum undergone by more advanced students is also included in this mode. This mode of conversion tends to interconnect with the other modes listed above. Ali writes: Imamate becomes an important topic in discussions and training carried out in usrah, or study circles, HMI and dissident groups. It is legitimated by the fact that Ayatollah Khomeini can be regarded as an Islamic leader, representative of the Imam, whose revolution succeeded in overthrowing an oppressive regime.
According to Amsyari, Muslims who do not comprehend the totality of Islamic teachings kaffah , have neglected the Islamic teaching on imamate.
According to Jalaluddin Rakhmat, when converts did make the shift in orientation from intellectual and doctrinal aspects to jurisprudence, it occurred for political reasons and as a reaction to slander and attack from Sunnis, particularly in publications promoted by Saudi Arabia.
In this regard, the return to Indonesia of the Qum alumni has been fortuitous, since they are now religious teachers able to give instruction on any particular issue. A comprehensive account of this constitution can be found in van Dijk This lack of a central figure originates, in part, in the divided formation and development of the community as described in Chapter One.
The leaders can however be classified into two types: The intellectuals, on the other hand, are graduates from secular universities. The position of both types has been discussed by scholars such as Steenbrink1. The divide between the two, or more specifically, attempts to bridge the gap between them in terms of knowledge and leadership, has been of great concern to Indonesian Muslim intellectuals. In this chapter I will examine the general characteristics of both types of leaders.
The portraits will focus on determinants of leadership: It commonly denotes those who teach in traditional institutions of Islamic learning, the pesantren, in formal Islamic schools, the madrasa, and in religious gatherings, the pengajian. The position of ustadh remains firmly below that of kyai in this hierarchy.
First, their education usually takes place at institutions where a basic knowledge of the various branches of Islamic knowledge is introduced. On the whole, this is because their education in Qum only reached the muqaddamat, or introductory level. A number of ustadhs have entered the State Islamic University in Jakarta.
Further education in the field of religious knowledge contributes to establishing and increasing their prestige. Many have set up and led their own institutions. Like the person of the ustadh, the intellectual also has a respected position within the community. On the whole, intellectuals are graduates of secular universities trained in various fields of the secular sciences. Some prominent intellectuals graduated from renowned universities in Indonesia and in other countries.
He then enrolled at The Australian National University to study political science, without however finishing the course. He is currently writing a PhD thesis on philosophy at UI.
They are considered less qualified than the ustadhs in terms of traditional Islamic knowledge. All of these institutions are located in Bandung, West Java. Instead, they build their position in the community through strong commitment and contribution in the form of material assistance, strategic insight and critical thought. That said, we do find a small number of intellectuals who also take part in religious instruction and guidance. A case in point is Jalaluddin Rakhmat.
Since his death in however his position has not so far been filled by any current Indonesian ustadh or intellectual. Baraja had also been editor of the twicemonthly magazine al-Iqbal in the same city. It is also reported that he visited the Hadramaut for Islamic education before moving to Saudi Arabia, where he stayed for about two years.
After living in Malaysia for several years, Husein Al-Habsyi took his family back to his hometown of Surabaya, where he engaged in missionary and educational activities. With the knowledge he had acquired in Indonesia, Malaysia and the Middle East, he became an important ustadh at Islamic schools.
Moreover, he had started teaching at an early age, while still a student: He wrote several books on history, jurisprudence and doctrine. Through this membership, he became acquainted not only with influential Masyumi leaders such as M. Natsir d. He was selected to be a member of Konstituante Constituent Assembly at the eighth Masyumi conference in Bandung, December and from within the Constituent Assembly he was appointed head of the Human Rights Commission.
In he participated in the establishment of Front Anti-Komunis Anti-Communist Front ,15 which was set up to prevent the spread of the communist movement in the Old Order. For him the growth of Islam simply could not be achieved through political practice; he believed it could only succeed through education. His career progressed not only because of his commitment to Islamic education but also due to his comprehensive religious knowledge, managerial capabilities and social connections.
He became head of the branch of Al-. Khairiyya located in Bondowoso, East Java and led the school for several years. The banning of Masyumi and the de-politicisation of Islam under Suharto caused many Masyumi leaders to turn to the ideology of Ikhwan al-Muslimin. He travelled to Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Kuwait, Libya, Iraq and Iran to meet with these men and to collect donations from individuals and Islamic organisations for the development of education in AlKhairiyya and the Muslim community at large.
However, the strict discipline and rules imposed on the students and teachers at the school resulted in the majority of the staff rejecting his fundamentalist approach. He was forced to leave Al-Khairiyya and Bondowoso for Bangil but many qualified students, sympathetic to his ideas, followed him.
As a learned man with a comprehensive grasp of Islamic knowledge, Al-Habsyi himself formulated the educational programme. The YAPI principles and approaches to Islamic education followed the Ikhwan al-Muslimin model, which combined strict discipline and rules with the strong anti-Western attitude which Al-Habsyi considered to be the best model for achieving his educational ideals.
He was also proactive in the formation of cadres. He believed his framework for establishing and reviving religious zeal among students was essential, so that they would later engage in the struggle for Islam and the Muslim umma. Van Bruinessen Muhsein Husein Panitia n.
Husein Al-Habsyi was a popular preacher. He regularly delivered religious lectures and sermons in mosques in Bangil, Surabaya, Gresik, Jember and other townsin Java. He was an excellent orator, capable of captivating his audiences with his comprehension of Islam, broad insights into the latest developments in the Muslim world and his ability to use the techniques of modern mass communication in his lectures. In some areas he set up pesantren, which at first were branches of YAPI but later became independent institutions.
A number of YAPI alumni were sent out to teach there. The co-founder of Al-Khairiyya, Muhammad al-Muhdar d. The Iranian embassy in Jakarta distributed books and its magazine, Yaumul Quds, free of charge to Islamic foundations and individuals who requested them. Besides teaching and leading Islamic schools, he wrote books and translated books on Islam into Indonesian. Ahmad Hasan also wrote Halalkah bermadzhab?
In this long-running and at times heated clash of ideas, both writers accused the other of having insufficient knowledge of Islam and both omitted views that did not support their arguments. But the debate never took place. Al-Habsyi claimed that Mohammad Natsir, another Persis leader and a close associate from his Masyumi days, had advised him not to engage in the debate, as it would provoke religious conflict and disunity within the Muslim community.
In he once again engaged in theological polemics with the same reformist group, this time regarding the mawlid literature and the concept of Nur Muhammad Light of Muhammad 34 published in Al-Muslimun, an organ of Persis in Bangil.
It should be noted that there have been controversies among Muslim scholars concerning the nature of this concept at regular intervals. Federspiel provides us with a detailed discussion of this organisation.
It was founded in and Ahmad Hasan, born in Singapore of Indian origin, joined in Ahmad Minhaji provides a detailed account of Ahmad Hassan and his reformist legal thought. Hashem The Light of Muhammad is believed among some Sufis to have been created before all things Al-Samarrai Rosjidi also points out that the concept is adopted from Christianity and Hinduism. In reaction to this, Al-Habsyi wrote an article published in Al-Muslimun, maintaining that the concept of Nur Muhammad has a strong basis in Hadith.
Another reformist writer, Imron A. He also asked Manan to justify his claim that such Hadith are weak. Published in under the title Benarkah Nabi Bermuka Masam? Al-Habsyi maintains that the one at the meeting who did frown and turn away was Al-Walid bin al-Mughira, a tyrannical infidel from Mecca. It also opposes the views. Unfortunately I have been unable to obtain a copy. For these reasons, the controversy surrounding the book is not surprising. In response to these criticisms, Al-Habsyi wrote another scholarly work reaffirming his point of view on the perfection of the Prophet Muhammad: The basic aim will be that the Muslim umma be united and the relationship among all can become closely and strongly tied.
Certainly, we very much hope for the realisation of these approaches and demand the unification of fronts, instead of the breaking up of once united fronts.
Furthermore, the minority group will have nothing to fear from the majority Sunnis, who will then always protect, not oppress them. He also provided us with an authoritative Arabic-. Husein Al-Habsyi a: A text of this Hadith can be seen in Chapter Three. In them we find the religious thought which he directed to his followers. And his influence has spread beyond YAPI. He wore a turban, the outward symbol of a man of religious learning. His habitus54 exerted great influence on the Muslim community.
Cbr 600 repsol 2009 nissan
He was born in Palembang, South Sumatra on 27 December and as his clan name indicates, he is also a Sayyid. Both his primary and secondary education were completed in his home town. Husein Shahab left for Qum in September ,55 with motivations more educational than sectarian.
He concludes with an appeal for the scrutiny of any specific madhhab based on its own authoritative sources. He saw his overseas education first and foremost as a prestigious opportunity, something many students in Indonesia could only dream of.
Husein Shahab was enrolled at the Islamic educational institution, Dar alTabligh al-Islami, renowned for its non-Iranian student body. For about two years he followed the modern system of instruction offered by the institution. As previously noted, Dar al-Tabligh was dissolved by the Islamic government of Iran. His education in Qum ceased and in he returned to his hometown, Palembang. This time he headed for the Madrasa Hujjatiyya, another institution offering educational programmes for foreign students, but whilst he was registered at the dormitory of the institution, he did not follow its formal programmes.
Husein Shahab started out attending the circles on fiqh and then changed his orientation to Islamic philosophy and other intellectual sciences. His debates with the liberal Muhammad Husayn Fadlullah are discussed by Rosiny Here he developed his academic interests by conducting research and following lectures delivered by contemporary Muslim thinkers, including the renowned liberal Iranian intellectual, Abdul Karim Soroush.
His career as an ustadh began about five years after his study in Qum. Between and , he became an important ustadh at that foundation. In addition, he has involved himself with the religious programmes of several national television and radio stations. He is both a popular and a prominent ustadh in Indonesia,. Born in , Soroush is increasingly recognised as a liberal thinker. He teaches and preaches in more than 20 Islamic institutions.
The programmes of this Iranian-sponsored institution include publishing, teaching and preaching. Husein Shahab also participated in the establishment of Forum Al-Husainy in With regard to his intellectual achievements, Husein Shahab has produced several scholarly works. Most deal with his interest in Sufism and Islamic philosophy. His other book is a practical manual on observing the pilgrimage to Mecca, a chief pillar of obligatory Islamic ritual.
Its title is Cara Memperoleh Haji Mabrur: His latest book, published in , is Seni Menata Hati: Terapi Sufistik Arts of Governing the Heart: Sufi Therapy. He translated both the fatwas, or legal judgments of Ayatollah Abu al-Qasim Khoei d.
Like the Arabic original and English versions, which are widely distributed in the Muslim world, the Indonesian version, Akhirnya Kutemukan Kebenaran Finally I Found the Truth , published in , is widely read in Indonesia. It is interesting to note that this book is one of the forbidden books listed in a fatwa of Johor State, Malaysia, issued on 19 November He transforms the cultural and social capital he has accumulated into the economic capital essential for maintaining his living as an ustadh.
His father was a man of learning, as well as a village chief and a Masyumi activist who then joined the separatist movment of Darul Islam, forcing him and his family to move to Sumatra for several years. Jalaluddin Rakhmat attended public school and studied religion with a traditionalist teacher named Ajengan Shidik. Jalaluddin Rakhmat received his formal education at secular schools and universities. His academic career in the field of communications began with his appointment as a lecturer at his alma mater.
Jalaluddin Rakhmat has lectured on communications from the beginning of his academic career. His students report that they eagerly looked forward to his lectures because of his convincing rhetoric and his expertise in the field. With these materials circulating among students and scholars alike, Rakhmat is widely recognised as an expert in the field.
It is unsurprising then that in , after an absence of almost 10 years, he was asked to return to UNPAD as a lecturer and was subsequently inaugurated as Professor of Communications. During his studies at secondary school, he joined the youth branch of Persis in Bandung.
Later, in , he joined the Muhammadiyah training camp Darul Arqam, held with the purpose of preparing Muhammadiyah preacher cadres.
This reformist programme provoked strong negative reactions from followers of traditionalist Islam in the region. But Rakhmat always considered himself to have been successful in carrying out his duties as a Muhammadiyah preacher. In the s, his achievements in this reformist organisation saw him appointed an executive member of the Council of Education, Instruction and Culture of the Bandung branch of Muhammadiyah and of its Council of Preaching in the West Java provincial branch.
Abdulrahim and others, he established pengajian circles at the Dar al-Arqam mosque in Ames, Iowa. One of his missionary tasks was to give the sermon at the Friday Prayers. These were then compiled and published in Khutbah-khutbah di Amerika Sermons in America, Rakhmat formed a close relationship with Imaduddin Abdulrahim, co-founder of the Salman Mosque at ITB, Bandung, who encouraged him to become a regular preacher at the mosque upon his return from America.
Large numbers attended his religious lectures. On one occasion, Imaduddin Abdulrahim was informed that his influence on the Salman activists was so great that the congregation had become divided into two factions: Indeed, Rakhmat is a very popular preacher, with his religious lectures attracting large audiences.
His fame as preacher and intellectual has spread rapidly, not only in West Java but throughout the country. In interviews, Jalaluddin Rakhmat told us that his lectures at the Salman Mosque often turned into interactive discussions with his audience. To this day he continues to deliver regular sermons at this mosque. He writes: It is said that these pengajian caused unrest.
I was declared persona non grata from the Salman Mosque. The participants were crowded in the narrow rooms. Some overflowed outside. Soon after the Al-Muawwarah Mosque was established, they moved again to a mosque.
Then the space was larger. His ideas can be found in essays included in two volumes: It is true that he was one of a group of Muslim intellectuals who were fascinated by the victory of the Iranian Revolution and its ideology.
These works were considered to offer alternative ideological worldviews. Upon his return from Sri Lanka however he began and enthusiastic programme of reading.
Rakhmat even calls Husein Al-Habsyi his teacher. Initially, he had intended to pursue a PhD in Theology at Tehran University, but the process of enrolment was so complex that he changed his plans.
This year also provided his children with the opportunity to gain educational and religious experience in the shrine city of Qum.
Collections of his essays written in the s are published in two of his best known books: Islam Alternatif: Ceramah-Ceramah di Kampus Alternative Islam: Campus Lecturers, and Islam Aktual: Social Reflections of a Muslim Intellectual, The former consists of essays presented in seminars and lectures at university campuses.
Islam Aktual: Notwithstanding its promising sub-title, Rakhmat himself acknowledges that, in general, the essays are not based on deep thinking, something he sees as quite in keeping with the character of the mass media. Jalaluddin Rakhmat has also written books on more specialised disciplines of Islamic knowledge. In his second book of commentary, Rakhmat claims: Besides the above-mentioned Sufi tafsir book, there is Membuka Tirai Kegaiban: Pencerahan Sufistik Achieving Divine Love: Sufi Enlightenment, They are derived from collections of his sermons, in particular those delivered at the regular Sunday religious gatherings at the Munawwarah Mosque and from essays published in the media.
Rakhmat clearly recognises shortcomings in his own works as, more often than not, he offers excuses in their introductions. For instance, despite its promising title, Rakhmat acknowledges that his Membuka Tirai Kegaiban does not provide its readers with the same in-depth analysis of Sufi teachings as can be found in the classical books of Suhrawardi or al-Ghazali.
Nonetheless, he provides innovative interpretations of certain Sufi teachings by comparing Sufism with psychology. In other articles he suggests that the teachings of Sufism can lead to emotional and spiritual intelligence,83 the chief key to which is the Sufi teaching of patience. See Bihar Anwar However, Rakhmat does not actually give readers an historical description of the life of the Prophet, save for providing examples of interpretations of events which he believes are worthy of criticism.
Jalaluddin Rakhmat also writes about the validity of certain religious practices which run contrary to reformist views. In Rindu Rasul: The modernist ideology penetrating my thought had dried my soul. In the wider context of Indonesian Islam, he may have actually contributed to maintaining practices upheld by traditionalist Muslims in Indonesia. Jalaluddin Rakhmat also wrote a work on ethics with the provocative title, Dahulukan Akhlak di atas Fikih Prioritise Ethics over Jurisprudence, a.
The book is intended to solve the long-running problem in the Muslim umma, namely the factions which emerged following the death of the Prophet, by implementing his divine message on the universal necessity of noble ethics: Rakhmat presents the differences in legal opinion among the various schools of Islamic law during the course of history and analyses the factions and fanatical attitudes of followers of schools that have created conflicts within the umma.
He suggests that the believer should renounce his or her strict adherence to a certain school of law for the greater good of establishing Islamic fraternity. Notwithstanding this call to abandon allegiance to particular schools of law for the sake of Islamic fraternity, Rakhmat wrote several essays on fiqh. This attitude can be seen in his book, Jalaluddin Rakhmat Menjawab Soal-soal Islam Kontemporer Jalaluddin Rakhmat Answers Contemporary Islamic Problems, a which is derived from his spontaneous responses to questions posed by audiences at his lectures at the Salman and Al-Munawwarah Mosques between and But Rakhmat is very capable of coping with the various responses directed towards him.
He produces works not only on his technical field of specialisation and Islamic knowledge but also about psychology, education and so on. Another work, Rekayasa Sosial: Reformasi atau Revolusi? Social Engineering: Reformation or Revolution? On revolution, Rakhmat writes: When the whole nation runs into crisis, all the people demand change. Revolution emerges as the best strategy. Reformation is considered too slow, while the stomach cannot wait.
When corruption has been entrenched in the whole body of the nation, we need a total surgical operation, that is, revolution. Taking several definitions of revolution, he points out three dimensions: However, he personally rejects the third dimension. For instance, according to behavioural theory, revolutionary circumstances include: You believe in the truth of Islam and you prove the belief with your willingness to die to support Islam.
You know that all kinds of oppression. Rakhmat a: Death-witnessing your belief is martyrdom. The foundation, which has the slogan: Since , it has organised the programme of SMU Plus Senior High School with attribute Plus ,96 which has attracted students from various parts of the country.
The foundation has a publishing wing which has produced a number of books, including titles by Jalaluddin Rakhmat and students of SMU Plus. All these activities have made the institution and its leader famous throughout Indonesia. Since then, he has become the chairman of the advisory council and the most influential figure in the development of this organisation. Konspirasi has 33 ratings and 1 review.
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In this there's the possibility to cancel up to 20 guest card plus 20 staff card;. Both his primary and secondary education were completed in his home town. It is of interest to describe and analyse YAPI and to compare it with Pesantren Al-Hadi, as well as to examine both institutions from the perspective of the pesantren tradition.
Tazkiya Sejati is the most famous. Since its establishment this Islamic centre has functioned as a co-ordinating body in organising the celebration of Islamic festivals. Perang Dunia I.
The social and psychological benefits of being active in a congregation also form a motivation.
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