ELEMENTS OF PSYCHOLOGY PDF
The Elements of Psychology. By EDMUND Article · Info & Metrics · eLetters · PDF. Loading The first page of the PDF of this article appears above. Science: . Knight Dunlap is well known in the field of psychology. Elements of Psychology Download the PDF to view the article, as well as its associated figures and. The elements of psychology. byThorndike Topics Psychology. PublisherNew "Bibliographies of psychology": p. B/W PDF download · download 1.
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The Basic Elements of Voice Dialogue,. Relationship, and the Psychology of Selves their origins and development by Hal Stone, Ph.D. & Sidra Stone, Ph.D. I wrote this book to help students organize their thinking about psychology at a conceptual .. Uses the method of introspection to identify the basic elements or. Astrology Psychology And The Four Elements Pdf The Four Elements Pdf ( FREE) ATradition sees the entire universe as consisting of the.
This is significant as it helped disseminate his work. Indeed, parts of Wundt's theory were developed and promoted by his one-time student, Edward Titchener, who described his system as Structuralism, or the analysis of the basic elements that constitute the mind. Wundt wanted to study the structure of the human mind using introspection. Wundt believed in reductionism.
That is, he believed consciousness could be broken down or reduced to its basic elements without sacrificing any of the properties of the whole. Wundt argued that conscious mental states could be scientifically studied using introspection.
He trained psychology students to make observations that were biased by personal interpretation or previous experience, and used the results to develop a theory of conscious thought. Highly trained assistants would be given a stimulus such as a ticking metronome and would reflect on the experience. They would report what the stimulus made them think and feel. The same stimulus, physical surroundings and instructions were given to each person.
Wundt's method of introspection did not remain a fundamental tool of psychological experimentation past the early 's. His greatest contribution was to show that psychology could be a valid experimental science. Therefore, one way Wundt contributed to the development of psychology was to do his research in carefully controlled conditions, i. This encouraged other researchers such as the behaviorists to follow the same experimental approach and be more scientific.
However, today psychologists e.
Skinner argue that introspection was not really scientific even if the methods used to introspect were.
Skinner claims the results of introspection are subjective and cannot be verified because only observable behavior can be objectively measured.
Psychology as a Science
Because it has evolved that way! Kline argues that psychoanalytic theory can be broken down into testable hypotheses and tested scientifically. For example, Scodel postulated that orally dependent men would prefer larger breasts a positive correlation , but in fact found the opposite a negative correlation.
Behaviorism has parsimonious i. Behaviorists firmly believed in the scientific principles of determinism and orderliness, and thus came up with fairly consistent predictions about when an animal was likely to respond although they admitted that perfect prediction for any individual was impossible.
The behaviorists used their predictions to control the behavior of both animals pigeons trained to detect life jackets and humans behavioral therapies and indeed Skinner , in his book Walden Two , described a society controlled according to behaviorist principles.
Full understanding, prediction and control in psychology is probably unobtainable due to the huge complexity of environmental, mental and biological influences upon even the simplest behavior i. You will see therefore, that there is no easy answer to the question 'is psychology a science? But many approaches of psychology do meet the accepted requirements of the scientific method, whilst others appear to be more doubtful in this respect.
There are alternatives to empiricism, such as rational research, argument and belief.
The humanistic approach another alternative values private, subjective conscious experience and argues for the rejection of science. The humanistic approach argues that objective reality is less important than a person's subjective perception and subjective understanding of the world.
Because of this, Carl Rogers and Maslow placed little value on scientific psychology, especially the use of the scientific laboratory to investigate both human and other animal behavior. This is what the humanistic approach aims to do. Humanism is a psychological perspective that emphasizes the study of the whole person. Humanistic psychologists look at human behavior not only through the eyes of the observer, but through the eyes of the person doing the behaving.
Humanistic psychologists believe that an individual's behavior is connected to his inner feelings and self-image. The humanistic approach in psychology deliberately steps away from a scientific viewpoint, rejecting determinism in favor of freewill, aiming to arrive at a unique and in depth understanding.
Humanistic psychologists rejected a rigorous scientific approach to psychology because they saw it as dehumanizing and unable to capture the richness of conscious experience. In many ways the rejection of scientific psychology in the s, s and s was a backlash to the dominance of the behaviorist approach in North American psychology.
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Common Sense Views of Behavior In certain ways everyone is a psychologist. This does not mean that everyone has been formally trained to study and be trained in psychology. People have common sense views of the world, of other people and themselves. These common sense views may come from personal experience, from our upbringing as a child and through culture etc. Common-sense views about people are rarely based on systematic i. Racial or religious prejudices may reflect what seems like common sense within a group of people.
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However, prejudicial beliefs rarely stand up to what is actually the case. Common sense, then, is something which everybody uses in their day-to-day lives, guides decisions and influences how we interact with one another. But because it is not based on systematic evidence, or derived from scientific inquiry, it may be misleading and lead to one group of people treating others unfairly and in a discriminatory way.
Limitations of Scientific Psychology Despite having a scientific methodology worked out we think , there are further problems and arguments which throw doubt onto psychology ever really being a science.
Limitations may refer to the subject matter e. Science assumes that there are laws of human behavior that apply to each person. Therefore science takes both a deterministic and reductionist approach.
Science studies overt behavior because overt behavior is objectively observable and can be measured, allowing different psychologists to record behavior and agree on what has been observed. This means that evidence can be collected to test a theory about people.
Scientific laws are generalizable, but psychological explanations are often restricted to specific times and places. Because psychology studies mostly people, it studies indirectly the effects of social and cultural changes on behavior.
Psychology does not go on in a social vacuum. Behavior changes over time, and over different situations. These factors, and individual differences, make research findings reliable for a limited time only. Are traditional scientific methods appropriate for studying human behavior?
When psychologists operationalize their IV, it is highly likely that this is reductionist, mechanistic, subjective, or just wrong. Operationalizing variables refer to how you will define and measure a specific variable as it is used in your study.
For example, a bio psychologist may operationalize stress as an increase in heart rate, but it may be that in doing this we are removed from the human experience of what we are studying. The same goes for causality. Experiments are keen to establish that X causes Y, but taking this deterministic view means that we ignore extraneous variables, and the fact that at a different time, in a different place, we probably would not be influenced by X. There are so many variables that influence human behavior that it is impossible to control them effectively.
The issue of ecological validity ties in really nicely here. Objectivity is impossible. It is a huge problem in psychology, as it involves humans studying humans, and it is very difficult to study the behavior of people in an unbiased fashion. Moreover, in terms of a general philosophy of science, we find it hard to be objective because we are influenced by a theoretical standpoint Freud is a good example of this.
The observer and the observed are members of the same species are this creates problems of reflectivity. A behaviorist would never examine a phobia and think in terms of unconscious conflict as a cause, just like Freud would never explain it as a behavior acquired through operant conditioning. This particular viewpoint that a scientist has is called a Paradigm Kuhn, Kuhn argues that most scientific disciplines have one predominant paradigm that the vast majority of scientists subscribe to.
Anything with several paradigms e. With a myriad of paradigms within psychology, it is not the case that we have any universal laws of human behavior, and Kuhn would most definitely argue that psychology is not a science.
Verification i. It could be disproved at any moment.Combat Forces Press, As a start, we recommend you refer to the 5 elements of the model often.
There are alternatives to empiricism, such as rational research, argument and belief. Common sense, then, is something which everybody uses in their day-to-day lives, guides decisions and influences how we interact with one another.
When psychologists operationalize their IV, it is highly likely that this is reductionist, mechanistic, subjective, or just wrong. Psychology is really a very new science, with most advances happening over the past years or so. Kuhn argues that most scientific disciplines have one predominant paradigm that the vast majority of scientists subscribe to.