GENERAL BIOLOGY BOOK PDF
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This book is organized to help you learn biology. Core Principles of Biology. The first half of this text is devoted to general principles that apply to all. University of Leeds Classification of Books. General Biology. [A. General] [Not to be used for specialised series e.g. Society for General Microbiology; Not to be. COURSE DESCRIPTION: General Biology I is the first of a two semester general your biology textbook and will coincide with what we will be studying in the.
The topics selected in both volumes represent areas of current research whose findings have not been previously synthesized into a coherent form. An important feature of these volumes is the emphasis on the interaction between biology and management and culture.
Many of the contributors have done research in both applied and basic biology and can articulate both points of view. The interaction between basic and applied research is of fundamental importance in these volumes in which management aspects of the research have been integrated with the basic biology of lobsters. The Biology and Management of Lobsterswill be of interest to crustacean biologists, marine biologists and ecologists, zoologists, physiologists, animal behavior researchers, aquaculturalists, fisheries biologists and managers of fisheries, neurobiologists, pathologists, and food scientists.
Table of Contents List of Contributors. Contents of Volume II. General Biology, B. Phillips, J. Cobb, and R. Physiology: Introduction, W.
Molting and Growth, D. Neurobiology, B. Ache and D. The oxygen produced during photosynthesis moves out of the cells and into the intercellular spaces. From here it moves to the substomatal air chambers and eventually diffuses out of the leaf through the stomata.
At night oxygen enters the cells while CO2 moves out. Gaseous exchange in the leaves of aquatic floating plants Aquatic plants such as water lily have stomata only on the upper leaf surface. The intercellular spaces in the leaf mesophyll are large. Gaseous exchange occurs by diffusion just as in terrestrial plants. Observation of internal structure of leaves of aquatic plants Transverse section of leaves of an aquatic plant such as Nymphaea differs from that of terrestrial plant.
The following are some of the features that can be observed in the leave of an aquatic plant; Absence of cuticle Palisade mesophyll cells are very close to each other ie. Air spaces aerenchyma in spongy mesophyll are very large.
A Text-book of Biology for Students in General, Medical and Technical Courses
Sclereids stone cells are scattered in leaf surface and project into air spaces. They strengthen the leaf making it firm and assist it to float. Gaseous Exchange Through Stems Terrestrial Plants Stems of woody plants have narrow openings or slits at intervals called lenticels.
They are surrounded by loosely arranged cells where the bark is broken. They have many large air intercellular spaces through which gaseous exchange occurs.
Oxygen enters the cells by diffusion while carbon IV oxide leaves.
Unlike the rest of the bark, lenticels are permeable to gases and water. Aquatic Plant Stems The water lily, Salvia and Wolfia whose stems remain in water are permeable to air and water. Oxygen dissolved in the water diffuses through the stem into the cells and carbon IV oxide diffuses out into the water.
Gaseous Exchange in Roots Terrestrial Plants Gaseous exchange occurs in the root hair of young terrestrial plants. Oxygen in the air spaces in the soil dissolves in the film of moisture surrounding soil particles and diffuses into the root hair along a concentration gradient. It diffuses from root hair cells into the cortex where it is used for respiration. Carbon IV oxide diffuses in the opposite direction. In older roots of woody plants, gaseous exchange takes place through lenticels.
Aquatic Plants Roots of aquatic plants e. Oxygen from the water diffuses into roots along a concentration gradient. Carbon IV oxide diffuses out of the roots and into the water. The roots have many small lateral branches to increase the surface area for gaseous exchange.
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They have air spaces that help the plants to float. Mangroove plants grow in permanently waterlogged soils, muddy beaches and at estuaries. They have roots that project above the ground level. These are known as breathing roots or pneumatophores. These have pores through which gaseous exchange takes place e. Others have respiratory roots with large air spaces.
Gaseous Exchange in Animals All animals take in oxygen for oxidation of organic compounds to provide energy for cellular activities. The carbon IV oxide produced as a by-product is harmful to cells and has to be constantly removed from the body. Most animals have structures that are adapted for taking in oxygen and for removal of carbon IV oxide from the body. These are called "respiratory organs". The process of taking in oxygen into the body and carbon IV oxide out of the body is called breathing or ventilation.
Gaseous exchange involves passage of oxygen and carbon IV oxide through a respiratory surface by diffusion. Types and Characteristics of Respiratory surfaces Different animals have different respiratory surfaces.
The type depends mainly on the habitat of the animal, size, shape and whether body form is complex or simple. Cell Membrane: In unicellular organisms the cell membrane serves as a respiratory surface. Gills: Some aquatic animals have gills which may be external as in the tadpole or internal as in bony fish e. They are adapted for gaseous exchange in water. Skin: Animals such as earthworm and tapeworm use the skin or body surface for gaseous exchange.
The skin of the frog is adapted for gaseous exchange both in water and on land. The frog also uses epithelium lining of the mouth or buccal cavity for gaseous exchange. Lungs: Mammals, birds and reptiles have lungs which are adapted for gaseous exchange. Characteristics of Respiratory Surfaces They are permeable to allow entry of gases.
They have a large surface area in order to increase diffusion. They are usually thin in order to reduce the distance of diffusion.
They are moist to allow gases to dissolve. They are well-supplied with blood to transport gases and maintain a concentration gradient. Gaseous Exchange in Amoeba Gaseous exchange occurs across the cell membrane by diffusion. Oxygen diffuses in and carbon IV oxide diffuses out. Oxygen is used in the cell for respiration making its concentration lower than that in the surrounding water. Hence oxygen continually enters the cell along a concentration gradient.
Carbon IV oxide concentration inside the cell is higher than that in the surrounding water thus it continually diffuses out of the cell along a concentration gradient. Gaseous Exchange in Insects Gaseous exchange in insects e. The main trachea communicate with atmosphere through tiny pores called spiracles.
Spiracles are located at the sides of body segments; Two pairs on the thoracic segments and eight pairs on the sides of abdominal segments. Each spiracle lies in a cavity from which the trachea arises. Spiracles are guarded with valves that close and thus prevent excessive loss of water vapour.
A filtering apparatus i. The valves are operated by action of paired muscles. Mechanism of Gaseous Exchange in Insects The main tracheae in the locust are located laterally along the length of the body on each side and they are interconnected across.
Each main trachea divides to form smaller tracheae, each of which branches into tiny tubes called tracheoles. Each tracheole branches further to form a network that penetrates the tissues. Some tracheoles penetrate into cells in active tissue such as flight muscles. These are referred to as intracellular tracheoles. Tracheoles in between the cells are known as intercellular tracheoles. The main tracheae are strengthened with rings of cuticle. This helps them to remain open during expiration when air pressure is low.
Adaptation of Insect Tracheoles for Gaseous Exchange The fine tracheoles are very thin about one micron in diameter in order to permeate tissue. They are made up of a single epithelial layer and have no spiral thickening to allow diffusion of gases. Terminal ends of the fine tracheoles are filled with a fluid in which gases dissolve to allow diffusion of oxygen into the cells. Amount of fluid at the ends of fine tracheoles varies according to activity i. During flight, some of the fluid is withdrawn from the tracheoles such that oxygen reaches muscle cells faster and the rate of respiration is increased.
In some insects, tracheoles widen at certain places to form air sacs. These are inflated or deflated to facilitate gaseous exchange as need arises.
Atmospheric air that dissolves in the fluid at the end of tracheoles has more oxygen than the surrounding cells of tracheole epithelium'. Oxygen diffuses into these cells along a concentration gradient. Air and diffuses out of the cells along a concentration gradient. It is then removed with expired air. Ventilation in Insects Ventilation in insects is brought about by the contraction and relaxation of the abdominal muscles. In locusts, air is drawn into the body through the thoracic spiracles and expelled through the abdominal spiracles.
Air enters and leaves the tracheae as abdominal muscles contract and relax. The muscles contract laterally so the abdomen becomes wider and when they relax it becomes narrow. Relaxation of muscles results in low pressure hence inspiration occurs while contraction of muscles results in higher air pressure and expiration occurs. In locusts, air enters through spiracles in the thorax during inspiration and leaves through the abdominal spiracles during expiration. This results in efficient ventilation.
Maximum extraction of oxygen from the air occurs sometimes when all spiracles close and hence contraction of abdominal muscles results in air circulating within the tracheoles. The valves in the spiracles regulate the opening and closing of spiracles. Observation of Spiracle in Locust Some fresh grass is placed in a gas jar.
A locust is introduced into the jar. A wire mesh is placed on top or muslin cloth tied around the mouth of the beaker with rubber band. The insect is left to settle. Students can approach and observe in silence the spiracles and the abdominal movements during breathing. Alternatively the locust is held by the legs and observation of spiracles is made by the aid of hand lens. Gaseous Exchange in Bony Fish e.
The gills are located in an opercular cavity covered by a flap of skin called the operculum. There are four gills within the opercular cavity on each side of the head. Each gill is made up of a bony gill arch which has a concave surface facing the mouth cavity anterior and a convex posterior surface. Gill rakers are bony projections on the concave side that trap food and other solid particles which are swallowed instead of going over and damaging the gill filaments.
Two rows of gill filaments subtend from the convex surface. Adaptation of Gills for Gaseous Exchange Gill filaments are thin walled. Gill filaments are very many about seventy pairs on each gill , to increase surface area.
Each gill filament has very many gill lamellae that further increase surface area. The gill filaments are served by a dense network of blood vessels that ensure efficient transport of gases. It also ensures that a favourable diffusion gradient is maintained. The direction of flow of blood in the gill lamellae is in the opposite direction to that of the water counter current flow to ensure maximum diffusion of gases. Ventilation As the fish opens the mouth, the floor of the mouth is lowered.
This increases the volume of the buccal cavity. Pressure inside the mouth is lowered causing water to be drawn into the buccal cavity.
Meanwhile, the operculum is closed, preventing water from entering or leaving through the opening. As the mouth closes and the floor of the mouth is raised, the volume of buccal cavity decreases while pressure in the opercular cavity increases due to contraction of opercular muscles.
The operculum is forced to open and water escapes. As water passes over the gills, oxygen is absorbed and carbon dioxide from the gills dissolves in the water. As the water flows over the gill filaments oxygen in the water is at a higher concentration than that in the blood flowing, in the gill. Carbon IV oxide is at a higher concentration in the blood than in the water. It diffuses out of blood through walls of gill filaments into the water.
Counter Current Flow In the bony fish direction of flow of water over the gills is opposite that of blood flow through the gill filaments. This adaptation ensures that maximum amount of oxygen diffuses from the water into the blood in the gill filament. This ensures efficient uptake of oxygen from the water.
Where the flow is along the same direction parallel flow less oxygen is extracted from the water. Observation of Gills of a Bony Fish Tilapia Gills of a fresh fish are removed and placed in a petri-dish with enough water to cover them.
A hand lens is used to view the gills. Gill bar, gill rakers and two rows of gill filaments are observed. Gaseous Exchange in an Amphibian - Frog An adult frog lives on land but goes back into the water during the breeding season. A frog uses three different respiratory surfaces. These are the skin, buccal cavity and lungs. Skin The skin is used both in water and on land. Adaptations of a Frog's Skin for Gaseous Exchange The skin is a thin epithelium to allow fast diffusion.
The skin between the digits in the limbs i. It is richly supplied with blood vessels for transport of respiratory gases.
The skin is kept moist by secretions from mucus glands. This allows for respiratory gases to dissolve. Oxygen dissolved in the film of moisture diffuses across the thin epithelium and into the blood which has a lower concentration of oxygen. Carbon IV oxide diffuses from the blood across the skin to the atmosphere along the concentration gradient. Buccal Mouth Cavity Gaseous exchange takes place all the time across thin epithelium lining the mouth cavity.
Adaptations of Buccal Cavity for Gaseous Exchange It has a thin epithelium lining the walls of the mouth cavity allowing fast diffusion of gases. It is kept moist by secretions from the epithelium for dissolving respiratory gases. It has a rich supply of blood vessels for efficient transport of respiratory gases. The concentration of oxygen in the air within the mouth cavity is higher than that of the blood inside the blood vessels.
Oxygen, therefore dissolves in the moisture lining the mouth cavity and then diffuses into the blood through the thin epithelium. On the other hand, carbon IV oxide diffuses in the opposite direction along a concentration gradient. Lungs There is a pair of small lungs used for gaseous exchange. Adaptation of Lungs The lungs are thin walled for fast diffusion of gases.
Have internal foldings to increase surface area for gaseous exchange. A rich supply of blood capillaries for efficient transport of gases. Moisture lining for gases to dissolve. Ventilation Inspiration During inspiration, the floor of the mouth is lowered and air is drawn in through the nostrils.
When the nostrils are closed and the floor of the mouth is raised, air is forced into the lungs. Gaseous exchange occurs in the lungs, oxygen dissolves in the moisture lining of the lung and diffuses into the blood through the thin walls.
Carbon IV oxide diffuses from blood into the lung lumen. Expiration When the nostrils are closed and the floor of mouth is lowered by contraction of its muscles, volume of mouth cavity increases. Abdominal organs press against the lungs and force air out of the lungs into buccal cavity. Nostrils open and floor of the mouth is raised as its muscles relax. Air is forced out through the nostrils.
Gaseous Exchange in a Mammal -Human The breathing system of a mammal consists of a pair of lungs which are thin-walled elastic sacs lying in the thoracic cavity. The thoracic cavity consists of vertebrae, sternum, ribs and intercostal muscles. The thoracic cavity is separated from the abdominal cavity by the diaphragm. The lungs lie within the thoracic cavity. They are enclosed and protected by the ribs which are attached to the sternum and the thoracic vertebrae. There are twelve pairs of ribs, the last two pairs are called 'floating ribs' because they are only attached to the vertebral column.
The ribs are attached to and covered by internal and external intercostals muscles. The diaphragm at the floor of thoracic cavity consists of a muscLe sheet at the periphery and a central circular fibrous tissue.
The muscles of the diaphragm are attached to the thorax wall. The lungs communicate with the outside atmosphere through the bronchi, trachea, mouth and nasal cavities. The trachea opens into the mouth cavity through the larynx.
A flap of muscles, the epiglottis, covers the opening into the trachea during swallowing. This prevents entry of food into the trachea. Nasal cavities are connected to the atmosphere through the external nares or nostrils which are lined with hairs and mucus that trap dust particles and bacteria, preventing them from entering into the lungs.
Nasal cavities are lined with cilia.
The mucus traps dust particles, The cilia move the mucus up and out of the nasal cavities. The mucus moistens air as it enters the nostrils. Nasal cavities are winding and have many blood capillaries to increase surface area to ensure that the air is warmed as it passes along. Each lung is surrounded by a space called the pleural cavity. It allows for the changes in lung volume during breathing. An internal pleural membrane covers the outside of each lung while an external pleural membrane lines the thoracic wall.Neurobiology, B.
The direction of flow of blood in the gill lamellae is in the opposite direction to that of the water counter current flow to ensure maximum diffusion of gases. All the steps can be grouped into three main stages: Glycolysis. This ebook integrates text with online video to enable learning anywhere, anytime on smart phones, tablets and laptops. It's easier to figure out tough problems faster using Chegg Study. The Astrobiology Primer:
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