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THE JAVA SWING LAYOUT MANAGEMENT TUTORIAL EBOOK

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The Java Swing Layout Management Tutorial Ebook

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This second edition of Java Swing thoroughly covers all the features available in .. We assume that you understand the AWT layout managers, all of which .. of you still working with JDK , we've included a PDF containing the " Keyboard. Introduction to the Java Swing Toolkit Swing library is an official Java GUI toolkit released by Sun Microsystems. offers a dedicated pages e-book for the Swing layout management process: Java Swing layout management tutorial. The Definitive Guide to Java Swing, Third Edition. Copyright Event Handling with the Swing Component Set. . Event Handling and Layout Management.

The others allow to specify those parameters. The example shows a button, a tree component, and a text area component in the window.

If we create an empty tree component, there are some default values inside the component. The implicit layout manager of the JPanel component is FlowLayout. We do not have to set it manually. The flow layout manager sets a preferred size for its components. So in our case, the area component will be xpx.

If we didn't set the preferred size, the component would have a size of its text.

Swing layout management

Without the text, the component would not be visible at all. Try to write or delete some text in the area component. The component will grow and shrink accordingly. The GridLayout layout manager lays out components in a rectangular grid. The container is divided into equally sized rectangles.

One component is placed in each rectangle. The example shows a skeleton of a simple calculator tool. We put nineteen buttons and one label into the manager. Notice that each button is of the same size. Here we set the grid layout manager for the panel component. The layout manager takes four parameters. The number of rows, the number of columns and the horizontal and vertical gaps between components. BorderLayout is a simple layout manager that can be handy in certain layouts.

It has a serious limitiation — it sets the gaps between its children in pixels, thus creating rigid layouts. This leads to non-portable UI, and therefore, its usage is not recommended. BorderLayout divides the space into five regions: Each region can have only one component.

If we need to put more components into a region, we have to put a panel there with a manager of our choice.

The components in N, W, S, E regions get their preferred size. The component in the centre takes up the whole space left.

It does not look good if child components are too close to each other. We must put some space among them. Each component in Swing toolkit can have borders around its edges. To create a border, we either create a new instance of an EmptyBorder class or we use a BorderFactory. Here we placed the top panel into the bottom panel component. More precisely, we placed it into the center area of its BorderLayout manager. Here we created a 20px border around the bottom panel.

The border values are as follows: Note that creating fixed insets spaces is not portable. The example shows a typical application skeleton. We show a vertical and horizontal toolbars, a statusbar, and a central component a text area. BorderLayout is the default layout manager for the JFrame container. So we do not have to set it explicitly. In order to put some empty space around the button, we have to use EmptyBorder.

This adds some fixed space to the top and bottom of the button. When we add fixed spaces, the UI is not portable. A 3 px space may look OK on a x screen but it is inappropriate on a x px screen. CardLayout is a simple layout manager that treats each component as a card.

The container is a stack of these cards. Only one component is visible at a time; the rest is hidden. The first component added to the container is visible by default when the container is initially displayed. This manager has a limited practical use. Each component in Swing toolkit can have borders around its edges. To create a border, we either create a new instance of an EmptyBorder class or we use a BorderFactory.

EmptyBorder; import java. BorderLayout; import java. Color; import java. The bottom panel has the BorderLayout manager. More precisely, we placed it into the center area of its BorderLayout manager. The border values are as follows: top, left, bottom and right. Note that creating fixed insets spaces is not portable. ImageIcon; import javax. JMenu; import javax.

JMenuBar; import javax. JToolBar; import javax. We show a vertical and horizontal toolbars, a statusbar, and a central component a text area. BorderLayout is the default layout manager for the JFrame container.

So we do not have to set it explicitly. This adds some fixed space to the top and bottom of the button. When we add fixed spaces, the UI is not portable.

A 3 px space may look OK on a x screen but it is inappropriate on a x px screen. WEST ; We place the vertical toobar to the west. The container is a stack of these cards.

The Java Swing layout management tutorial

Only one component is visible at a time; the rest is hidden. The first component added to the container is visible by default when the container is initially displayed. This manager has a limited practical use.

It can be used to create a wizard or a tabbed pane. The following example uses a CardLayout manager to create a gallery of images. We use four images of the Krasna Horka castle before the fire in CardLayout; import java.

EventQueue; import javax. We set its colour to dark gray. We put 5px around the panel so that its children are not too close to the border of the window. It flips to the previous card of the specified container. If we do not specify explicitly where we place the component, it is added to the center area. Figure: CardLayout BoxLayout BoxLayout manager is a simple layout manager that organizes components in a column or a row.

It can create quite sophisticated layouts with nesting.

Example of a Custom Layout

However, this raises the complexity of the layout creation and uses additional resources, notably many other JPanel components. BoxLayout is only able to create fixed spaces; therefore, its layouts are not portable. BoxLayout has the following constructor: BoxLayout Container target, int axis The constructor creates a layout manager that will lay out components along the given axis.

Unlike other layout managers, BoxLayout takes a container instance as the first parameter in the constructor. The second parameter determines the orientation of the manager. The box layout manager is often used with the Box class.

This class creates several invisible components, which affect the final layout. Box; import javax. BoxLayout; import javax.

Figure: Two buttons We create two panels. The base panel has a vertical box layout. The bottom panel has a horizontal one. We put a bottom panel into the base panel.

This method should calculate and return the ideal size of the container, assuming that the components it contains will be at or above their preferred sizes. This method must take into account the container's internal borders, which are returned by the getInsets method. Dimension minimumLayoutSize Container Called by the Container getMinimumSize method, which is itself called under a variety of circumstances. This method should calculate and return the minimum size of the container, assuming that the components it contains will be at or above their minimum sizes.

Answers: Laying Out Components within a Container

A layout manager's layoutContainer method does not actually draw components. It simply invokes one or more of each component's setSize, setLocation, and setBounds methods to set the component's size and position.

If appropriate, it should also take the container's orientation returned by the getComponentOrientation method into account.One component is placed in each rectangle. In this tutorial, we use GroupLayout manager to get design the user interface. BorderLayout divides the space into five regions: This is Java Swing Layout management e-book.

The layout manager takes four parameters. Here we placed the top panel into the bottom panel component. We put nineteen buttons and one label into the manager.

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