Business The Sounds Of Language An Introduction To Phonetics Pdf


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PDF | | ResearchGate, the professional The sounds of language: An introduction to phonetics and. Introduction to Linguistic Knowing a language includes knowing the sounds of that language. • Phonetics is the study of speech sounds. • We are able to. things like the sounds in the words oh, eye, ooh, ah; they are made with no Transcription is the use of phonetic symbols to write down the way an utterance ( a.

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The Sounds of Language is an introductory guide to the linguistic study of speech sounds, which provides uniquely balanced coverage of both phonology and. begin our study of language by examining the inventory and structure of the sounds of speech. This branch of linguistics is called phonetics. Human languages. Vowels around the world. Putting vowels and consonants together. The sounds of A Course in Phonetics. An introduction to the sounds of languages.

Her hair is medium length, wavy and red. Her hair is short, curly and blonde. Type of complexion He is asian. He has light-brown skin. She is black. She has dark skin. He is white. He has fair skin. She is white. She has lightly tanned skin. She has very pale skin. There are those who are fat and overweight. Some people are extremely overweight and are obese. Other people are naturally slim, but others look have absolutely no fat on them and are thin, or skinny. Personally, I am stocky — small, but well-built.

My father is tall and lean — with very little fat. My sister is short, but wiry — she is quite thin, but muscular.

Both my brothers are athletic and well-proportioned. She is curvaceous, with an hour-glass figure. My grandfather is fit for his age and takes plenty of exercise. Colouring My sister — she has fair hair and fair skin. My mother is blonde, also with a fair complexion.

I am a red- head — with red hair. Like many other people with a pale complexion, I get freckles from the sun — small brown dots on my face and arms. In contrast, my father has dark-brown hair and he is quite dark-skinned. You are born with a colour — white or Caucasian, black or Asian.

People whose parents are of different ethnic origin are mixed-race. Southern Europeans are sometimes described as Mediterranean. Face Faces, like build, vary a lot. Some people have oval faces — their foreheads are much wider than their chins. Other people have heart-shaped, square or round faces. Features also vary. My grandfather has bushy eyebrows he has lots of hair!

His eyes are large and set quite far apart. My mother has a broad nose, which she hates, as she prefers narrow noses. But she is lucky to have even or regular teeth. My sister corrected her crooked teeth by wearing a brace which straightened them. She has rosy cheeks, small ears and a snub nose, which goes up at the end.

I have long, curly hair, though my sister is the opposite, with short, straight hair. My father is losing his hair — in fact he is going bald, which makes him very sad.

My brother looks like he is going to lose his hair too. Describing Emotions There are hundreds of words that are used to describe or identify emotional states: It is an important skill that you will need at the college and university levels as well as in your professional and personal lives, both to explain a map, graph or table in speech or writing and to re present a verbal text in graphic form.

Information transfer is used specifically in the contexts of narration, physical and process description, listing and classifying, comparison and contrast, showing cause and effect relationship, and generalizing from numerical data. Transferring information from verbal to graphic form, and vice versa is thus a very useful skill that will help you in study and at work.

Technology in every field of information means the macro information is being transferred as much as micro is being, which we have on our finger tips. Information in verbal form can be made clearer and easier to understand by presenting it in graphic or pictorial form. Pictorial representation has many advantages: Allows quick and easy viewing of a large amount of data Quicker to locate required information in a graphic than in a written text Data relating to a long period of time or to large number of people can be effectively summarized Convenient to use in making comparisons involving amounts of data: The different types of graphic representation you could use to supplement your writing are: When you need to use a graphic form of communication, choose a form that will present your data clearly, accurately and in an interesting manner.

When information is personated graphically, you should be able to interpret or analyse it.

Unit 1 Introduction To English Phonetics A. Theory # Organs of speech: inwards

Transferring information from textual to graphic form and, conversely, from pictorial to verbal form are both important and useful skills. The above example makes the advantages of pictorial representation clear: These have different uses.

Thus bar charts make comparisons, pie chart show how something is divided, and line graphs show variations in data. When you use graphs to present your data, choose the kind that will serve your purpose best and depict your analysis clearly and accurately.

For example, difference in quality or number cannot be shown on a flow chart, and a trend cannot be represented by a table. TABLES A simple form of graphic representation is the table, in which data are arranged in horizontal rows and vertical columns that carry labels to identify what they represent.

It is a very common kind of graph used to depict levels of a qualitative, independent variable using individual bars. It consists of an axis and a series of labeled horizontal or vertical bars with different values. The numbers along one side of the bar graph is the scale. It consists of a circle divided into sections, each showing the size of some related piece of information.

It is used to represent a process that takes place in successive stages, as in a production process from raw material to finished product. It uses, as its name suggests, pictures in place of bars or figures. For example, the flowers growing in different places in a state or a country can be presented by tiny pictures. They show outlines and boundaries, names or codes of areas within them and features such as roads, coastlines, rivers, buildings and rooms.

In a formal debating contest, there are rules for people to discuss and decide on differences, within a framework defining how they will interact. Informal debate is a common occurrence, but the quality and depth of a debate improves with knowledge and skill of its participants as debaters. Deliberative bodies such as parliaments, legislative assemblies, and meetings of all sorts engage in debates.

The outcome of a debate may be decided by audience vote or by judges. A debate is a structured argument. It is one way of communication where our analytical and logical thinking comes into play. It is an art of knitting arguments and putting them forth in a constructive way. Debate makes us think about the two opposite sides of a subject and helps us decide as to which way to follow. As the topic of debate is already decided, sometimes you may find your self supporting a move which you normally oppose or vice-versa.

We can put forth points for and points against a particular through direct debates as well as essay writing. Debates are conducted in colleges and University. Debate is a contest between two speakers or two groups of speakers to exhibit their capacity and dexterity in arguing, there should always be one or more speakers for proposition and oppositions. Usually, in a debate, a topic is thrown between two teams or two individuals. One team decides to go for the topics and the other, goes against it.

The topics are suitable selected as to having both pros and cons as the debate begins; the teams declare their stand and get into arguments and counter-arguments. At the end, an evaluation is made on the basis of the arguments put forth by both the teams and decision is taken on who is the winner.

Debate is the ultimate mind exercise. Four types of debate: Parliamentary Debate. This is the debating that goes on in colleges and universities.

You might also like: THE GRAMMAR BOOK

Value debate: In this debate two contestants will debate topics centered around moral issues or propositions of value or preference. Here are some examples of topics appropriate for value debate: Cross Examination Debate also called policy debate or team debate. In this type of debate two teams , one representing the affirmative position and one representing the negative position, will debate topics of public or government policy.

Academic Debate. These are debates of a purely academic nature.

There are two things you will have to study if you want to participate in debate: The principles of debate—logic, evidence, case construction, proof, refuting arguments, rebuttal, the brief, etc.

Observe as many debates as you can. This will be difficult for some, but you might look into attending some college debates.

Theory # Organs of speech: inwards INTRODUCTION TO ENGLISH PHONETICS

The more you observe and study the more familiar you will become with the procedures and terminology of debate. Participants should follow these four steps: Read for background information about the subject. Prepare a comprehensive bibliography. Collect as much material as you can find. Read and study the material discovered. Read and study the material discovered: After you have secured all of the material available, you will then read and study carefully the books and articles you have found.

Try to learn as much as you can about the subject and to get the points of view of as many different authorities as possible. Be on the lookout for new ideas and new suggestions for arguments, arguments on both sides of the topic.

Look for specific items of evidence, which might be used as proof. Topics for Debate Here are a few topics to discuss with a friend or group. Practise agreeing and disagreeing even if you have to argue against something you actually believe in. One way to have fun with this is to make up a bunch of cards that say agree or disagree. Try to continue each discussion for at least five minutes. Use the expressions that you learned, including agreeing, disagreeing, asking for opinions, interrupting, etc.

Alcohol should be illegal. Studying grammar is more important than practicing conversation skills. Dogs make better companions. Smoking should be permitted in public places. Females are better students than males. Women should be empowered.

Everyone should plan their own funeral. Reading English is more difficult than writing English. Summer is the best season of the year. Engineering students should wear uniforms. The government should pay for post secondary education.

Learning the common phrases that are used on the telephone helps students know what to expect. However, what students often need most is practice, practice, and more practice. While helpful, practicing a role-play in the classroom is not always the best way to improve telephoning skills. Telephoning requires special skills as there are a number of difficulties that arise when telephoning that are specific to telephoning. The first and foremost difficulty is not being able to see the person you are communicating with.

This lack of visual communication often makes students, who can communicate quite successfully in other situations, nervous and thereby hinders their communicative abilities.

Add to this the typical hectic pace of business communication, and you have a particularly difficult situation. Before you pick up the phone, take a deep breath.

We take small breathes in and out and therefore, sound tired when we answer the phone. The goal is to sound like you like your job and you are glad they called. Practice taking a very big breath and answering the phone at the top of that breathe. You will continue speaking on the exhale of that breath and the caller will hear energy in your voice!

You can also practice it when you are making a call and start your breath as the phone is ringing on the other end. Identify yourself: Give your full name and function and or the name of your company. People call us on the phone to have a problem answered.

Whether it is to get driving directions, or hours of operation or questions about our merchandise, they have a question and want it answered quickly, intelligently and politely. Listen attentively: Put everything down when you answer the phone! How many times have you been in your office answering email, talking on the phone, listening to your ipod and sipping? If you still have trouble listening, start taking notes on what they are saying. Use a headset if possible, to keep your hands free.

By taking notes you can verify with them as well as yourself, the important points of the conversation and the action items that needed attention. If the phone call has been successful, the first 30 seconds established a positive perception about you through voice, and tone and focus.

The last 30 seconds will be when the caller finalizes their opinion about you. You can make that a positive experience by thanking them for calling, reviewing the problem you were able to solve and then most importantly, thanking them for their continued business. These skills include: Smiling Smiles and gestures can easily be heard over the phone, so keeping that smile on your face helps to create a positive engagement with caller every time you talk to them.

Problem Solving Skills Generally, the company you work for will offer the tools to solve any problem a caller may have, but it is your job to learn how to use them effectively. Excuse me, who is this? Prince speaking Can I ask who is calling, please? Can I — more Can you hold the line? Is Jack in? Is Jack in the office?

Give your friend a call and practice various conversations role plays. If your class is on site at the office go to different offices and call one another practicing conversations. Another variation is for the students to go into another office and have the teacher telephone them pretending to be a native speaker in a hurry.

This exercise is always a lot of fun — depending on how good your teacher is at acting! Find a product you are interested in and research it over the telephone. You can … - call a store to find out the prices and specifications.

Giving Directions Introduction: Not everyone knows where they are going and may need help with directions from time to time. Directions may be needed to get to a near by town, or directions to the newest mall in town or directions to the nearest rest room in a large building. Where ever you are going the expression below can be used when asking for directions.

Suggestions for giving directions Giving street directions is really very easy when you remember to follow these points.

When giving directions you are actually giving two sets of instructions. Easily identifiable landmarks are street lights, stop signs, parks, tall building standing alone, etc. Excuse me, could you tell me how to get to the city hospital? Sure, the hospital is on Tenth Street, about 20 minutes away by foot. Go south on this street two blocks until you come to the stop light.

Go south two blocks to the stop light. Correct, then, turn left and go three more blocks, until you come to the end of the road. A park will be in front of you. Turn left and go for three blocks to the park.

Right, then turn right again and go seven blocks, to Lipton Avenue. Turn right and go seven blocks to Lipton Avenue. Next, turn left on Lipton Avenue and go two blocks. The hospital is on your left, across from the baseball stadium. Go south on this street for two blocks to the stop light. Turn left at the light and go three blocks to the park. Turn right at the park and go seven blocks to Lipton Avenue. At Lipton Avenue turn right and… Sally: No, turn left on Lipton Avenue.

OK, turn left on Lipton Avenue, the hospital is two blocks down, on my left. You got it. When Giving Directions in English, Giving directions usually consists of to sets of instructions. In the first set: In the second set: Anderson Construction? How do I find. What is the best way to get to. Which way do I go to get to. Go past the. Excuse me. Is there a grocery store around here? Can you tell me how to get to Phoenix? Next to the library.

How do you get to the bank? Go straight down this street for two blocks. Turn left when you get to Maple Street. Stay on Maple for half a block. Important Phrases How do I get to …? Where is …? Go straight on until you come to …. Turn back. Is there a bank near here? Directions II Excuse me. Is there a supermarket near here? How do I get there?

When the edges of the vocal folds touch each other, air passing through the glottis will usually cause vibration figure b. This opening and closing is repeated regularly and gives what is called voicing. Figure 5: Roach The same goes for few and view, [f] is voiceless, [v] is voiced. If you now say [ssssszzzzzsssss] or [fffffvvvvvfffff] you can either hear the vibrations of the [zzzzz] or [vvvvv] by sticking your fingers into your ears, or you can feel them by touching the front of your larynx the Adam's Apple.

This distinction is quite important in English, as there are many pairs of sounds that differ only in voicing. In the examples below the first sound is voiceless, the other is voiced: This distinction can also be made in between two vowels: In English the following consonants are voiced: As we saw above [p,t,k] are all voiceless, so there must be another way to distinguish between them, otherwise we would not be able to tell try apart from pry or cry, or pick from tick or kick.

Apart from the behaviour of the vocal folds, sounds can also be distinguished as to where in the oral cavity they are articulated i. Examples are [p], which is voiceless, as in pay or [b] and [m] which are voiced, as in bay, may. Labiodental sounds are made when the lower lip is raised towards the upper front teeth.

Examples are [f] safe voiceless and [v] save voiced. Dental sounds are produced by touching the upper front teeth with the tip of the tongue.

Examples are [S] oath voiceless and [C] clothe voiced. Examples are [ t,s ] too,sue, both voiceless, and [d,z,n,l,r ] do, zoo, nook, look, rook, all voiced. Palatoalveolar sounds are made by raising the blade of the tongue towards the part of the palate just behind the alveolar ridge. Examples [R,tR] pressure, batch voiceless and [Y,dY] pleasure, badge voiced. Palatal sounds are very similar to palatoalveolar ones, they are just produced further back towards the velum.

Velar sounds are made by raising the back of the tongue towards the soft palate, called the velum. Examples [k] back, voiceless, and [g, M] both voiced bag, bang. Glottal sounds are produced when the air passes through the glottis as it is narrowed: Figure We can now distinguish between English consonants from two points of view, that of voicing, and that of place. We can see that [b] and [t] are different in both respects, [b] is voiced and bilabial, and [t] is voiceless and alveolar.

There are still pairs of sounds where we cannot yet describe the difference of one from the other, e. As the examples show, we can however tell the words apart, and this is because the sounds are different in a way we have not yet discussed, and that is with respect to their manner of articulation. The manner of articulation has to do with the kind of obstruction the air meets on its way out, after it has passed the vocal folds.

It may meet a complete closure plosives , an almost complete closure fricatives , or a smaller degree of closure approximants , or the air might escape in more exceptional ways, around the sides of the tongue laterals , or through the nasal cavity nasals.

Plosives are sounds in which there is a complete closure in the mouth, so that the air is blocked for a fraction of a second and then released with a small burst of sound, called a plosion it sounds like a very small explosion. Plosives may be bilabial [p,b] park, bark, alveolar [t,d] tar, dark or velar [k,g] car, guard. There is a fourth kind of plosive, the glottal stop. The word football can be pronounced without interruption in the middle as in [fTtbN: In English a voiceless plosive that occurs at the begining of a word and is followed by a vowel, is rather special in the sense that at the release of a plosion one can hear a slight puff of air called aspiration before the vowel is articulated.

These aspirated voiceless plosives are not considered to be different sounds from unaspirated voiceless plosives from the point of view of how they function in the sound system.

This difference, which can be clearly heard, is said to be phonetic. Fricatives have a closure which is not quite complete.

This means that the air is not blocked at any point, and therefore there is no plosion. On the other hand the obstruction is big enough for the air to make a noise when it passes through it, because of the friction. This effect is similar to the wind whistling around the corner of a house. Fricatives may be labio- dental [f,v] wife, wives, dental [S,C] breath, breathe, alveolar [s,z] sink, zinc, palato-alveolar [R,Y] nation, evasion, or glottal [h] help. As it has no closure anywhere else, and as all air passes between the vocal folds, this means that [h] is like aspiration unaccompanied by any obstruction.

Affricates are a combination of a plosive and a fricative sometimes they are called "affricated plosives". They begin like a plosive, with a complete closure, but instead of a plosion, they have a very slow release, moving backwards to a place where a friction can be heard palatoalveolar.

The two English affricates are both palatoalveolar, [tR] which is voiceless, chin, rich, and [dY] which is voiced, gin, ridge. The way an affricate resembles a plosive followed by a fricative is mirrored in the symbols.

Both consist of a plosive symbol followed by a fricative one: Nasals resemble plosives, except that there is a complete closure in the mouth, but as the velum is lowered the air can escape through the nasal cavity.

Though most sounds are produced with the velum raised, the normal position for the velum is lowered, as this is the position for breathing your velum is probably lowered right now when you are reading this.

The three English nasals are all voiced, and [m] is bilabial, ram, [n] is alveolar, ran, and [M] velar, rang. In the section on places, the dotted line on the pictures of bilabial, alveolar, and velar articulations illustrate the three nasals. Laterals are sounds where the air escapes around the sides of the tongue. There is only one lateral in English, [l], a voiced alveolar lateral. It occurs in two versions, the so- called "clear l" before vowels, light, long, and the "dark l" in other cases, milk, ball.

Words like little, lateral have one of each type. Here again, as with aspirated and unaspirated voiceless plosives, even though "clear l" and "dark l" are phonetically different, they cannot be said to be different sounds from the point of view of how they function in the sound system.

If you produce a "dark l" where usually you have a "clear l", for example at the beginning of the word long, your pronunciation will sound odd but nobody will understand a different word.

English has three approximants, which are all voiced. Scottish, Irish, and most American ones, also can have it after vowels. Therefore those accents can make a distinction between e. You can do exercises 11,12,13 and revise 5,6. The manners of articulation can be put into two major groups, obtruents and sonorants. The obstruents are plosives, fricatives and affricates, all sounds with a high degree of obstruction. Obstruents usually come in pairs, one voiceless, one voiced, e.

Sonorants have much less obstruction and are all voiced and therefore more sonorous. They include nasals, the lateral, and approximants.

The manners can be illustrated as in the following diagram: A sound on the left side of a column is voiceless, one on the right side is voiced. Vowels We shall first have a closer look at the way in which vowels differ from consonants. Then we shall analyse vowels phonetically, i. The last section is a table of the vowels. There are other points of view which we shall not deal with here, since they are irrelevant for our study.

From a phonetic point of view one way of distinguishing is by considering which sounds have the highest degree of obstruction. Although vowels have almost no obstruction, and some consonants obstruents, nasals, and the lateral have a high degree of obstruction, there is a group of consonants the approximants which would be classified as vowels if this criterion was used: This can be seen by comparing the approximant [j] in yeast [ji: From a phonological point of view, it is possible to distinguish between vowels and consonants by testing which sounds may be the nucleus of a syllable, i.

If you consider a syllable such as [k: In fact [k] and [t] may both be left out, and the remainder is still a syllable, [: If however you try to leave out the vowel, then there is no syllable anymore: Compare with yeast whereas [j] can be left out, giving [i: Syllabicity seems to be the criterion to determine whether a sound is a vowel or a consonant.

The above discussion would not be complete if we didn't mention the problem of so- called syllabic consonants. The reader will find an extensive discussion of syllabic consonants in chapter 4. In English the tongue may either be high, i.

English has three heights: The part of the tongue involved in the production of a vowel can also be illustrated with the examples above. If you say [i: This is because [i: Figure 17 gives you two examples of tongue position: There are also vowels in between front and back, called central, namely [2: To give an accurate account of tongue position one has to combine height of the tongue and part of the tongue involved.

The complete diagram of English vowels is: Front Central Back i: High H T? Mid e N: P Front Back Figure Note that English vowels do occupy the same "space" as German vowels. This is shown in figure 21a. Do exercise 14, 15, However for the purpose of description, what is relevant is not the difference of position but that of the perceived length of the vowel.

Thus it is said that [i: The same is valid for [u: Symbols for long vowels all have a colon.

Phonologically, one can establish the rule such as only long vowels may be the last sound of a syllable, whereas short vowels are always followed by at least a consonant. If we take away the final [t] from court, [kN: Exceptions from this are the three short vowels that occur in completely unstressed syllables, [sHtH, HntT, swet?

You can have another look at exercise 3a 2. If you compare [i: When pronouncing [u: McCarthy Such vowels are called monophthongs, and English has 12 of them. English also has 8 diphthongs, which are vowels that change character during their pronunciation, that is, they begin at one place and move towards another place. Compare for example the monophthong in car with the diphthong in cow, or the monophthong in girl with the diphthong in goal.

The vowels of cow and goal both begin at a given place and glide towards another one. In goal the vowel begins as if it was [? Therefore it is written [? T], as in [g? Tl] goal, with two symbols, one for how it starts and one for how it ends. The easiest way to remember them is in term of three groups composed as follow: You can do exercise 17 2. T diphthong mid central unrounded to high back rounded aT diphthong low central unrounded to high back rounded H? Find the phonetic symbol for the first sound in each of the following words: Find the phonetic symbol for the last sound in each of the following words: Put the following words into the corresponding columns: T aT caught - owe - coal - own - sore -mow sore scowl - brow - door - now - paw - found 4.

Find the mistakes: Among the following words tick those which start with a nasal sound: All the nasal sounds have a non-nasal counterpart. In the following series could you fill the missing sound: Put the following words into two columns according to whether their consonant is voiced or not: T, SaH, of, HtR,?

Circle the words in which the consonant in the middle is voices: The following diagrams each represent a different place of articulation. Can you name them? Can you list the sounds that are produced at each of these places? For each of these sounds, give a word in which it appears. Circle the words that begin with a bilabial consonant: Circle the words that begin with a velar consonant: Circle the words that begin with a labiodental consonant: Circle the words that begin with an alveolar consonant: Circle the words that begin with a dental consonant: Circle the words that begin with a palato-alveolar consonant: Circle the words that end with a fricative: Circle the words that end with a nasal: Circle the words that end with a plosive: Circle the words that begin with a lateral: Circle the words that begin with an approximant: Circle the words that end with an affricate: Put the following words in the relevant column according to the manner of articulation of the underlined consonant.

Give the English spelling of the words in 12 a. Write the symbol that corresponds to each of the following descriptions, and then give a word that contains the phoneme. Below are the tables of French and English vowels. Look at them carefully and answer the following questions. In English, how do you account for the difference between [i: Can you apply the same system to account for the difference between[i], [e], [D]and [a] in French?

How would you describe the differences between these sounds, knowing that they are all considered to be front. You see that the description of a sound is constrained by the system it is in.

In English, what is the difference between [i: Do you have such a difference in French? Where do you find rounded sounds in English? Where do you find rounded sounds in French? How do you account for the difference between [i] and [y] in French, considering that they are both front?

Is rounding a relevant feature in French cf. Is it a relevant feature in English? Now explain why rounding is a relevant feature i. Which sound do you get if you follow the instructions below? Start at [i: Which part of the tongue is involved and at what height is it? Now the back of your tongue is at its highest and you keep the same opening. Is this a possible sound of English? If not, what do you have to do to get one without changing the other parameters?

Now lower your tongue to the next possible position. Which sound do you get? Lower your tongue again. What do you get? What is the only thing you have to do to get [: Now where do you move to get [U]? From this position, move to [z].

Describe the move. What are the two intermediate steps to reach [i: Fill the blanks in the following text in order to describe the sequence of actions required for the pronunciation of the consonants in the middle of the word [Hmplznt] implant.

Note that in a sequence such as this one sounds tend to influence each other and do not appear exactly as they would in isolation. On the following diagram indicate with an arrow the movement of the tongue for the diphthongs in the given words.

Give a phonetic transcription first. H T player fire e? Voiceless sounds are sounds made with vocal cords drawn apart so that the air can pass out freely and there is no vibration. Fortis are consonants which are tend to be articulated with relatively strong energy. They are voiceless sounds and usually shorten the preceeding vowel.

They are voiced sounds and usually lengthen the preceeding vowel. To descript an English consonant we should descript the following aspects: Voicing place of articulation manner of articulation place of velum force of articulation Eg. English Consonants Voiceless sounds are on the left A. Theory 1. Classify all the English plosives, providing the words containing the sounds. List the bilabial consonants. For each bilabial, provide one word containing it. We can realize such difference when these sounds are articulated by touching the Adams apple.

According to what are English consonants classified? Give examples English consonants are classified according to 5 criteria: According to place of articulation: - Bilabial: p, b, w, m eg.

The Sounds of Language: An Introduction to Phonetics and Phonology

What are the differences between a plosive and an affricate in English? Criteria Airstream Plosive The airstream is stoped in the oral or nasal cavity by the as the lips contact or the soft palate raises forming a velic closure Affricate The tongue comes up to make a contact with the alveolar ridge to form a stop closure and this contact is then slacken loosen to make a fricative.

The combination between plosive and fricative Number of Plosive manners involved 6.

What is the distinction between an alveolar plosive and an alveolar fricative? The distinction between an alveolar plosive and an alveolar fricative is the airstream: in alveolar plosive, the soft palate is raised so that the nasal tract is blocked off, then the airstream is hoanguyen 6 English Phonetics completely obstructed while in an alveolar fricative, the close approximation of two articulators caused the airstream partially obstructed and turbulent airflow is produced.

Classify the English fricatives according to the criteria for classification of the sounds. Give the words containing these consonants.

What are fortis consonants and what are lenis ones? What is the main difference in articulation between a velar plosive and a bilabial plosive? Bilabial plosive is formed by the contact between the two lips while velar plosive is formed by the back of the tongue articulates with the soft palate the soft palate is raised to make velar closure. State basic difference between fortis consonants and its lenis counterparts?

Practice: 1. Underline: a. The words that begin with a bilabial consonant mat knot fat zip pie sigh race rave rain pill nut we knee got cat nip guy shy sat lot that lip shy tie bat cot mat sip rat hot chat tip pat pot vat dip high lie b. The words begin with a velar consonant c. The words begin with a labiodental consonant d. The words begin with a alveolar consonant e.

The words begin with a detal consonant thight thy thigh thy f. The words begin with palato-alveolar consonant g. The words end with a fricative wreath bush bring breathe bang rouge ray rang lip lull you rose rough h. The words end with a nasal dumb deaf lit bar one edge limb rob run ooze crab one dog hide laugh back i. The words end with a stop plosive j.She has medium length hair. Stressed syllables are strong syllables and unstressed syllables are weak syllables. Academic Debate.

Other people have heart-shaped, square or round faces.


My grandfather is fit for his age and takes plenty of exercise. NO YES. Would you like to change to the United States site?

DUNCAN from Jefferson
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