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APPROACHES AND METHODS IN LANGUAGE TEACHING PDF

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Affect in Language Learning edited by jane Arnold. Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching by Jack C. Richards and. Theodore S, Rodgers. In this series: Affect in Language Learning edited by jane Arnold Approaches and Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching by Jack C. Richards and. Jack C. Richards and Theodore S. Rodgers Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, work explaining various approaches to, and methods of, language teaching.


Approaches And Methods In Language Teaching Pdf

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carry out a method which is consistent with an approach An approach is a set of correlative assumptions dealing with the nature of language teaching and. Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching, Second Edition, by Jack C. Richards and Theodore S. Rodgers. Appropriate Methodology and Social Context. Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching . Access. PDF; Export citation. Contents 3 - The Oral Approach and Situational Language Teaching. pp

In the Natural Approach learners are expected to express their feelings and needs, and lessons are not designed based on grammatical structures. This approach also uses tasks from other approaches. According to Krashen and Terrell there are two ways to achieve competence in a second language, one is the acquisition of language, which occurs when the language is acquired in a subconscious way.

For example, when a child acquires his first language, the child does not learn the grammatical rules of the language, but has an exposure to the language, and acquires it by listening to parents and other adults that he or she is in contact with. Other skills learners develop are writing and reading classified job ads, taking notes, etc. For him, people learn language when they understand it, not when they speak; therefore, language teachers should provide plenty of input in their classrooms to foster language learning.

Krashen and Terrell , believe that language is better learned when it is used to convey messages and not when it is explicitly taught in a conscious way.

They also argue that using pictures and visual aid supports in the lessons is very useful. In the Natural Approach, the role of grammar is as relevant as language input, even when the language teacher teaches some grammar structures. The Natural Approach is based on five language acquisition principles. First, there is the dichotomy in acquisition and learning. Krashen and Terrell argue that language learners are not going to produce language structures that they are supposed to learn later at the early stage of learning.

Another hypothesis that Krashen points out in this approach is the built-in monitor that leaners have. Next is the input hypothesis, which is paramount in this approach since the methodology is based on input first, and at a later stage, output will take place. The final hypothesis is concerned with the affective filter.

Krashen and Terrell, indicate that humans have an affective filter that allows learners to acquire the language easier. When the affective filter is low, learners will acquire the language much better, since the level of stress and fear will be reduced.

One of the suggestions that Krashen gives is to avoid overcorrection of students to prevent inhibition when they speak, and he suggests that corrections be made indirectly. Krashen and Terrell were also advocates of naturalistic principles; they have tried to show that this method is more suitable for teaching second languages to children and young adults.

As was mentioned above, they also base their theory on how children learn their first language, stating that children do not receive grammatical explanations nor second language instruction when they are learning their L1; therefore, this strategy can also be applied when teaching second languages.

Different from the Direct Method, the Natural Approach creates less stress on teacher-centered lessons, direct repetition, and does not demand accurate production from the learners.

The Natural Approach focuses more on the exposure to the target language and input; therefore, it is normal for language learners to go through a silent period when they are learning the target language. Moreover, those who advocate this approach are against the teaching of phonetics, since at this stage language learners need to focus more on relevant elements of the language. According to these advocates, language learners are not expected to learn phonological rules, nor follow a repetition drill.

While Krashen and Terrell oppose the explicit teaching of pronunciation, on the other hand, Judy Gilbert argues that this practice must be conducted in the classrooms, because of the relationship that exists between speaking and listening comprehension.

Teaching applied phonetics can bring great results for these language learners and they will achieve good pronunciation in the target language; moreover, research and evidence shows that teaching pronunciation is also useful for increasing listening comprehension. Gilbert points out that language learners who are taught about English prosodic patterns, usually affirm that the teaching of pronunciation helps them understand the language spoken on TV, movies, radio, and in conversations with native speakers.

She also states that one of the reasons why this is useful is that when the learners are prosodically-trained, it is easier for them to understand the rhythm, intonation and cues that are used to convey the intended massage.

Moreover, she addresses that many English learners who lack proper training in listening comprehension, complain that native speakers speak too fast. This is a comment that the author has also heard from many students taking speaking and listening courses in the USA and Canada. This can be noticed when a learner confuses the sounds in English.

Many English language learners might confuse words such as ship for sheep, pen for pin, reach for rich, and hot for hat. Hence, it is recommendable to teach English phonetics to English language learners, so they become familiar with the sound system of the English language.

Based on the studies conducted by Gilbert , Avery and Ehrlich , one can conclude that the teaching philosophy of the Natural Approach in avoiding the teaching of explicit pronunciation can be questionable, since second language learners can profit from explicit phonetic lessons.

In fact, it can help them gain language proficiency because they will learn how to articulate the sounds of the target language properly. Therefore, learners in the Natural Approach will benefit if the teacher implements the teaching of applied phonetics in the course.

Of course, this does not mean that language teachers need to make the lessons complicated with too many phonetics rules. Moreover, teachers should recommend books and courses to learners who want to improve their accent and who wish to sound more like native speakers of the target language.

Approach, method, procedure and technique

There are books, which aim to improve English pronunciation. In addition, many colleges, and universities offer courses in accent reduction that English language learners can take to improve their pronunciation. Communicative Language Teaching Approach The main goal of this approach is to focus on the teaching of communicative functions rather than on forms; learners should be able to convey their meaning clearly, and they must be able to function in the target language. According to Littlewood , language is not static; it changes depending on the context in which it is used and the purpose for which it is used.

In the CLTA, language learners simulate real-life situations when they practice the target language; they focus on expressing their needs in a functional way, not on the form; so, focusing on meaning is paramount to achieve communication. However, it is also reasonable that second language learners need to know which form they will use to convey the intended meaning.

Littlewood points out that many teachers were excluding structures in the language when using the CLTA; however, they were not sure if this was a good idea because grammar could also help both teachers and learners to focus on some forms that are useful to convey the intended meaning. Littlewood, also states that structures are useful when the language teacher wants to emphasize some of the features of the language. Therefore, the teaching of the structure is applied in this case.

Consequently, one can observe that it is hard to exclude the explicit teaching and practice of structures, words, and the phonetics if the teacher expects the students to achieve a good communicative and linguistic competence in the target language. The Communicative Approach has some techniques that differ from other methods; for example, in CLTA, the goal for learning the target language is not based on memorization, and pronunciation can be taught from the beginning.

Of course, this does not mean that the language teachers will expect learners to reach native-like pronunciation, but rather set realistic goals, so learners can improve their language proficiency. The use of the first language should also be limited and not used as the vehicle of instruction. Also, reading and writing can be taught from the beginning of the course Littlewood, In this approach, language learners should achieve basic skills such as listening to an announcement in a bus station, airport, or any public place or ask for basic information in the target language.

An important issue about this approach to language teaching is that it trains learners for different social encounters, considering that language not only carries a functional meaning but also a social meaning as well. Most of the activities created to teach the CLTA are based on social interaction situations. In this approach, learners are taught to use the language in formal and informal situations.

In the second case, the learner will use a more formal speech than in the first one. Littlewood argues that there are some skills the learner should master to reach communicative competence.

First, the learner must reach some level of linguistic competence. Additionally, the learner must be able to communicate ideas clearly to be understood. This was observed in Canadian French immersion programs, where they used CLTA as the approach to teach L2 learners, and language learners were able to develop comprehension abilities equivalent to those of native speakers Genesee, Even though many teachers and school administrators who have implemented this approach to language teaching believe that the form and the structure of the language should not be taught explicitly, Littlewood, on the other hand, clearly states that teachers should provide activities where the learner can use some form that had been introduced and practiced in class.

Therefore, in a later stage, learners should focus on the form to be used in any given setting. Even so, in the CLTA approach, the most important feature of a sentence is function, not form. Even though a sentence may be incorrect in form, if it conveys the desired intention which is the meaning, it is fine in the CLTA views on language. As Wilkins said, "Even where there is grammatical inaccuracy, communication can still take place successfully" p.

This level of English may be acceptable in some social settings, but this philosophy of language is not acceptable in many colleges and universities where the students must show competence in academic English. Therefore, can one assume that the CLTA prepares students to function properly in an academic environment in an English-speaking country?

It is evident that each method and approach has its own purpose, and limitations too. The communicative language teaching approach has been used in many international teaching situations to teach personnel who work in the tourist industry where they need the language for the main purpose of oral communication to serve foreign tourists.

In this case, the CLTA approach is excellent, since it allows the employees to learn the second language quickly and there is no need to give much emphasis on perfection or overcorrection. The author was one of the teachers who taught this program in one of the biggest tourist areas in the city of Varadero, Cuba.

In this case, this setting justifies the use of CLTA based on the assumption made by Brown and Yule when they stated that Communicative Language Teaching aims to develop the ability of learners to use language in real communication. In this case, the employees who work in tourist services are acquiring the language to use it in real life communication, because the final goal will be to use the language for oral communication in real -life settings.

In the case of Cuba, teachers and school administrators allowed some foreign tourists to visit the language classes, so the students could practice the target language with native speakers.

Conclusion Finally, it is well known to most applied linguists that most language teaching methods come and go; however, even though one method usually replaces another, it is relevant to know that the latter can take many strategies and techniques from the former, and even from other previous methods. As a result, what one may assume is new in the field of second language teaching, may have already been used before in other previous methods.

In addition, as was stated at the beginning, every single person has a different purpose for learning a second or foreign language. One can find a learner who worries more about developing proficiency in two skills, such as listening and speaking.

It is common sense that this learner wants to use the language as an instrument for oral communication; therefore, his or her goal will be to achieve oral communication. On other hand, there are learners who want to achieve proficiency in the four skills, therefore, they will need to dedicate more time to learn the target language and use different methods, approaches, strategies, and techniques to develop full proficiency in the target language. As the linguist, Henry Sweet mentioned, a good method must, be comprehensive and eclectic.

It must be based on a thorough knowledge of the science of language phonetics, sound-notation, the grammatical structure of a variety of representative languages, and linguistic problems generally. Taking this statement into account, one can clearly observe how Sweet had a vision that language teachers had to be eclectic and not expose themselves to one method only.

It is logical that the best way to learn a foreign language is by applying the different methods, strategies and approaches available, and not just limiting oneself to one method.

Anthony, E. Approach, method, and technique. English Language Teaching. Avery, P. Teaching American English pronunciation. Azar, B. Part 1. Part 2. Aspects of language. Brown, Douglas. Teaching by Principles. An Interactive Approach to Language Pedagogy. New Jersey: Prentice Hall Regents. Brown, G. Teaching the spoken language, Vol 2. Cunningham, C. Translation 5th ed. Finocchiaro, M.

The Functional-Notional Approach:From theory to practice. Genesee, F. Learning through two languages. Rowley, MA: Newbury House. Gilbert, J. Teaching pronunciation using the prosody pyramid. Irizar, A. Jones, W. The application of the Direct Method to Latin and Greek.

The Natural Approach: Language acquisition in the Classroom. Oxford, UK: Pergamon Press. Krause, A. The Direct Method in modern languages. Kelly, L. Communication in the classroom. Larsen-Freeman, D. Techniques and principles in language teaching. Littlewood, W. Communicative language teaching. New York, N. The linking of structuralism a lin- using language for communication. Learning refers to the formal study guistic theory to behaviorism a learning theory produced Audiolin- of language rules and is a conscious process.

According to Krashen, gualism. That particular link was not inevitable, however. Cognitive- however, learning is available only as a "monitor. Krashen's At the level of approach, we are hence concerned with theoretical theory also addresses the conditions necessary for the process of "ac- principles.

With respect to language theory, we are concerned with a quisition" to take place. Krashen describes these in terms of the type of model of language competence and an account of the basic features of "input" the learner receives.

Input must be comprehensible, slightly linguistic organization and language use. With respect to learning theory, above the learner's present level of competence, interesting or relevant, we are concerned with an account of the central processes of learning not grammatically sequenced, in sufficient quantity, and experienced in: These principles mayor 'may not lead to "a" method.

Teachers Tracy D. Terrell's Natural Approach is an example of a method may, for example, develop their own teaching procedures, informed by derived primarily from a learning theory rather than from a particular " particular view of language and a particular theory of learning.

They view of language. A group of teachers holding similar beliefs about addresses primarily the conditions held to be necessary for learning to h ll ;lIa ge and language learning i.

Approach does not presumed to be see Chapters 7 and 8. Theory does not dictate a particular set of teaching Charles A. Curran in his writings on Counseling-Lea rnin g 1 , for Il'chniqllcs and activities. Wh at links theory with practice or approach example, focuses primarily on the condi tions neccso"ry for ",-, ccess f,,1 wilh procedure is wh at we have call ed design. Decisions about the choice of language content relate both to subject matter and linguistic matter.

In straightforward terms, one makes In order for an approach to lead to a method, it is necessary to develop decisions about what to talk about subject matter and how to talk a design for an instructional system.

Design is the level of method anal- about it linguistic matter. ESP courses, for example, are necessarily ysis in which we consider a what the objectives of a method are; b subject-matter focused.

Structurally based methods, such as Situational how language content is selected and organized within the method, that Language Teaching and the Audiolingual Method, are necessarily lin- is, the syllabus model the method incorporates; c the types of learning guistically focused.

Methods typically differ in what they see as the tasks and teaching activities the method advocates; d the roles of learn- relevant language and subject matter around which language teaching ers; e the roles of teachers; f the role of instructional materials.

Content issues involve the principles of selection Mackey that ultimately shape the syllabus adopted in a course as well as Objectives the instructional materials that are used, together with the principles of Different theories of language and language learning influence the focus gradation the method adopts. In grammar-based courses matters of se- of a method; that is, they determine what a method sets out to achieve.

In communicative or functionally of design, not of approach. Some methods focus primarily on oral skills oriented courses e. Some methods set out to teach general commu- Traditionally the term syllabus has been used to refer to the form in nication skills and give greater priority to the ability to express oneself which linguistic content is specified in a course or method. Inevitably meaningfully and to make oneself understood than to grammatical ac- the term has been more closely associated with methods that are product curacy or perfect pronunciation.

Others place a greater emphasis on centered rather than those that are process centered.

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Syllabuses and accurate grammar and pronunciation from the very beginning. Some syllab us principles for Audiolingual, Structural-Situational, and no- methods set out to teach the basic grammar and vocabulary of a lan- tional-functional methods as well as in ESP approaches to language guage. Others may define their objectives less in linguistic terms than in program design can be readily identified. The syllabus underlying the terms of learning behaviors, that is, in terms of the processes or abilities Situational and Audiolingual methods consists of a list of grammatical the learner is expected to acquire as a result of instruction.

Gattegno items and constructions, often together with an associated list of vo- writes, for example, "Learning is not seen as the means of accumulating cabulary items Fries and Fries ; Alexander et al. Notional- knowledge but as the means of becoming a more proficient learner in functional syllabuses specify the communicative content of a course in whatever one is engaged in" This process-oriented objective terms of functions, notions, topics, grammar, and vocabulary.

Such syl- may be offered in contrast to the linguistically oriented or product- labuses are usually determined in advance of teaching and for this reason oriented objectives of more traditional methods.

The degree to which a have been referred to as "a priori syllabuses. Counseling-Learning, for example, has no language syllabus as such. Many methods that claim to be primarily Neither linguistic matter nor subject matter is specified in advance. T hese are then translated into the target language and used: I S the basis for interaction and language practice. To find out what liuguisti c content had in fact been generated and practiced during a Content choice and organization: T hi s would be an a posteriori approach to lection o r hn g ll: With such methods as the Silent Way and roles and functions to teachers, learners, and instructional materials Total Physical Response, an examination of lesson protocols, teacher's within the instructional process.

These constitute the next three com- manuals and texts derived from them reveals that the syllabuses un- ponents of design in method anal ysis. In both there is a strong emphasis on gra mmar and grammatical accuracy. Learner roles The design of an instructional system will be considerably influenced by Types of learning and teaching activities how learners are regarded.

A method reflects explicit or implicit re- T he objectives of a method, whether defined primarily in terms of prod- sponses to questions concerning the learners' contri bution to the lea rning uct or process, are attained thtough the instructional process, thro ugh process. This is seen in the types of activities learners carry out, the the organized and directed interaction of teachers, learners, and matenals degree of control learners have over the content of learning, the patterns in the classroom.

Differences among methods at the level of approach of learner groupings adopted, the degree to which learners influence the manifest themselves in the choice of different kinds of learni ng and learning of others, and the view of the learner as processor, performer, teaching activities in the classroom.

Teaching activities that focus on initiator, problem solver. Activities designed to focus on the development of the very limited roles available to learners in audiolingual method- of specific psycho linguistic processes in language acquisition will differ ology.

Learners were seen as stimulus-response mechanisms whose learn- from those directed toward mastery of particular features of grammar. Newer methodologies The activity types that a method advocates - the third component in customaril y exhibit more concern for learner roles and for va riation the level of design in method analysis - often serve to distinguish meth- among learners. Johnson and Paulston spell out learner roles in ods. Audiolingualism, for example, uses dialogue and pattern practice an individualized approach to language learning in the fo llowing terms: The Silent Way employs problem-solving activities that in- a Learners plan their own learning program and thus ultimately assu me volve the use of special charts and colored rods.

Communicative lan- responsibility for what they do in the classroom. Counseling-Learning views learners as having roles Different philosophies at the level of ap proach may be reflected both that change developmentally, and Curran uses an ontogenetic in the use of different kinds of activities and in different uses for par- metaphor to suggest this development. He divides the developmental ticular activity types.

For example, interactive games are often used in process into five stages, extending from total dependency on the teacher audiolingual courses for motivation and to provide a change of pace in stage 1 to total independence in stage 5. These learner stages Curran from pattern-practice drills.

In communicati ve language teaching the sees as parallel to the growth of a child from embryo to independent same games may be used to introduce or provide practice for particular: Differences in activity types in methods may also involve different arrangements and groupings of learners.

A Teacher roles method that stresses o ral chorus drilling will require different groupll1gs of learners in the classroom from a method that uses problem-solving! I ,carner roles in an instructional system are closely linked to the teacher's inform ation-exchange activities involving pair work. Activity types in ,. Teacher roles are similarly related ultim ately both methods thus include the primary catego ries of learning and teaching. Some methods are totally dependent on the teacher as a source mands, group problem solving, information-exchange activities, im- " I know ledge and direction; others see the teacher's role as cata lyst, provisations, question and answer, or drill s.

It also defines Teacher roles in methods are related to the followmg Issues: The instructional materials in their turn further specify director, counselor, or model, for exampl e; b the degree of control the subject matter content, even where no syllabus exists, and define or teacher has over how learn ing takes place; c the degree to whIch the suggest the intensity of coverage for syll abus items, allocating the amount teacher is responsible for determining the content of what IS taught; and of time, attention, and detail particul ar syll ab us items or tasks require.

Instructional materials also define or imply the day-to-day learning ob- Methods typically depend critically on teacher roles and theIr realIza- jectives that collectively constitute the goals of the syllabus. Materials tions. In the classical Audiolingual Method, the teacher IS regarded as designed on the assumption that learning is initiated and monitored by the primary source of language and of language learnmg.

But less teacher- the teacher must meet quite different requirements from those designed directed learning may still demand very specIfic and sometImes even for student self-instruction or fo r peer tutoring. Some methods require more demanding roles for the teacher. The role of the teacher m the the instructional use of existing materials, fo und materials, and realia. Silent Way, for example, depends upon thotough trammg and meth- Some assume teacher-proof materials that even poorly trained teachers odological initiation.

Only teachers who are tho toughly sure of theIr with imperfect control of th e target language can teach with. Some role and the concomitant learner's role wIll rIsk departure from the materials req uire specially trained teachers with near-native competence security of traditional textbook-oriented teaching.

Some are designed to replace the teacher, so that For some methods, the role of the teacher has been specIfied m detaIl. Some materials dictate various Individualized approaches to learning define roles for the teacher that interactiona l patterns in the classroom ; others inhibit classroom inter- create specific patterns of interaction between teachers and learners In action; still others are noncommittal about interaction between teacher classrooms.

These are designed to shift the responsIbIlIty for learmng and learner and learner and lea rner. Counsel ing-Learmng sees the The role of instructional materials within a method or instructional teacher's role as that of psychological counselor, the effectIveness of the system wi ll reAect decisions concerning the primary goal of materials teacher's role being a measure of counseling skills and attrIbutes - warmth, e.

They may be asymmetrIcal rel atIOn-, puter software , the relation of materials to other sources of input i. Some contemporary methodologIes have sought component of it , and the abilities of teachers e.

A particular design for an instructional system may imply a particular The role of the teacher will ultimately reflect both the objectIves of the set of roles for materials in support of the syll abus and the teachers and method and the learning theory on which the method IS predIcated, smce lea rners. The role of instructional materials What IS specIfied o rm. The sy ll ah1ls defines lin gllisd. Way course based on Stevick Materials will allow lea rn ers to progress at their own rates of lea rning.

The teacher points at meaningless symbo ls on a wa ll chart. The symbols 2. Materials will allow for different styles of learning. The students read the 3. Materials will provide opportunities for independent study and lise. Materials will provide opportunities for self-evaluation and progress in 2. After the students can pronounce the sounds, the teacher moves to a sec- learning. The teacher leads the students to pronounce long numbers. The content of a method such as Counseling-Learn ing is assumed to 3.

The teacher uses colored rqds together with charts and gestures to lead be a product of the interests of the learners, since learners generate their the students into producing the words and basic grammatical structures own subject matter. In that sense it would appear that no linguistic needed. On the other hand, Counseling-Learning acknowledges the need for learner mastery of cer- Of error treatment in the Silent Way Stevick notes: Counseling-Learning sees these issues as falling out- When the students respond correctly to the teacher's initiative, she usually side the teacher's central role as counselor.

Thus Counseling-Learn ing does not react with any overt confirmation that what they did was right. If a has proposed the use of teaching machines and other programmed ma- student's response is wrong, on the other hand, she indicates that the student needs to do further work on the word or phrase; if she thinks it necessary, terials to support the learning of some of the more mechanical aspects she actually shows the student exactly whe re the additional work is to be of language so as to free the teacher to function increasingly as a learning done.

I'innocchiaro and Brumfit illustrate how the procedural phases of instruction are handled in what they call a notional -functional Procedure "pproach. The last level of conceptualization and organization within a method is I.

Presentation of a brief dialogue or several mini-dialogues. This encompasses the actual moment- Ora l practice of each utterance in the dialogue. Question s and answers based on the topic and situation in the dialogue. It is the level at which we II. Questions and answers related to the student's personal experience but describe how a method realizes its approach and design in classroom f.: At the level of design we saw that a method will advocate the ,.

Study of the basic communicative expressions used in the dialogue or one use of certain types of teaching activities as a consequence of its theo- of the structures that exemplify th e function. At the level of pro- ex pression of structure, cedure we are concerned with how these tasks and activities are integrated I, O ral recognition, interpretative procedu res.

There are K, Or: H1d ft: Very few methods are explicit with respect to all of these dimensions, however. In so doing, we wi ll often have to infer from what method developers have written in order to determine precisely what criteria are being used for teaching activities, what claims are being made about lea rning theory, what type of syllabus is being employed, and so on.

It is not clear whether such a developmental form ula is possible, and Our model certainly does not descri be the typical case. Methods can develop out of any of the three categories. Some methodologists would resist ca lling their proposals a method, although if descriptions are possible at each of the kvels described here, we would argue that what is advocated has, in: Let us now turn to the major approaches:!

II,d procedure. Bibliography 1I 1 "': Allen, R. Close, and R. English Grammatical Structure. II lI lhony, E. Approach , method and technique. English Language Tcaching Learning Another Language Through Actions: Los Garos, Cal.

Sky Oaks Producti ons. Di Pietro. Instructional strategies: International Review of Applied Linguistics 8: C lndlin. The csscnti: H9- 11 2. Illiou , N ' W York: Counseling-Learning in Second Languages.

Apple River Press. Language Teaching Finocchiaro, M. The Functional-Notional Approach: From Theory to Practice. Oxford University Press. Fries, C. Foundations for English Teaching. Gattegno, C. Teaching Foreign Languages in Schools: The Silent Way. Educational Solutions. Johnson, F. Individualizing in the Language Class- Few language teachers in the s are familiar with the terms Oral room.

Communicative Syllabus Design and Methodology. Even though neither term is commonly used today, Krashen, S.

Language Teaching Analysis. Procedural syllabuses. Teaching Languages: A Way and Ways. Alex- Newbury House. Terrell, T. A natural approach to the acquisition and learning of a ander's widely used textbooks, e. As a recent Brit- language. Modern Language Journal 61 7: Notional Syllabuses: Oxford University bard et al. It is important therefore to understand the prin- Press.

Background The origins of this approach began with the work of British applied linguists in the s and s. Beginning at this time, a number of outstanding applied linguists developed the basis for a principled ap- pruach to methodology in language teaching. Hornby, two of the most prom inent figures in British twentieth-century language teaching.

Both were fami lia r with the work of such linguists as Otto Jespersen and ilo lli el Jones, as well as with the Direct Method. What they attempted was 1'0 develop a more scientific foundation for an oral approach to " '"chin l; English than was evidenced in the Direct Method.

The result WIIS: Palmer Vocabulary control VIewed grammar as the underlying sentence patterns of the spoken lan- One of the first aspects of method design to receive attention was the guage. Palmer, Hornby, and other British applied linguists analyzed role of vocabulary. In the s and s several large-scale investi- English and classified its major grammatical structures into sentence gations of foreign language vocabulary were undertaken. The impetus patterns later called "substitution tables" , which could be used to help for this research came from two quarters.

First, there was a general internalize th e rules of English sentence structure. A second influence was the increased emphasis on reading skills by Hornby, Gatenby, and Wakefield and publish ed in as The as the goal of foreign language study in some countries.

A number of ped- the recommend ation of the Coleman Report Chapter 1 and also the agogica ll y motivated descriptions of English grammar were undertaken independent conclusion of another British language teaching specialist, including A Grammar of Spoken English on a Strictly Phonetic Basis Michael West, who had examined th e rol e of English in India in the Palmer and Blandford , A Handbook of English Grammar Zand- s.

Vocabu lary was seen as an essential component of reading voort , and Hornby's Guide to Patterns and Usage in English proficiency. With the development of systematic were to have a major practical impact on the teaching of English in the approaches to the lexical and grammatical content of a language course fo llowing decades. Frequency counts showed that a core of 2, or so and WIth the efforts of such speciali sts as Palmer, West, and Hornby in words occurred frequently in written texts and that a knowledge of these uSlllg these resources as part of a comprehensive methodological frame- words would greatly assist in reading a foreign language.

These Teaching efforts to introduce a scientifi c and rational basis for choosing the vo- cabulary content of a language course represented the first attempts to Palmer, Hornby, and other British applied linguists from the s establish principles of syllabus design in language teaching.

Although selection was a focus on the grammatical content of a language course. Much of his work in Japan, where he directed the In-! Thi s was not to be confused with the Direct Method , which , was directed toward developing classroom procedures suited to teach ing. Hi s view of gra m- 11I1 "l lIsnc theo ry and pra ctice, mar was very different from the abstract model or gra Il ISIS of 11 11 11I 11 Patterson 4: Approach 4 The Oral Approach was the accepted British approach to English lan- Theory of language guage teaching by the s.

It is described in th e standard methodology The theory of language underlying Situational Language Teaching can textboo ks of the period, such as French , Gurrey 1, be characterized as a type of British "stru cturalism. Palmer, Hornby, and other British applied 6 and in many other more recent textbooks.

One of the most active linguists had prepared pedagogical descriptions of the basic grammatical proponents of the Oral Approach m the SIxties was the Austrahan George structures o f English, and these were to be followed in developing meth- Pittman. Pittman and his colleagues were responsIble for developmg an odology.

In terms of language theory, th ere was little to distinguish ritories. Most Pacific territories continue to use the so-called Tate ma- such a view from that proposed by American linguists, such as Charles terials, developed by Pittman 's colleague Gloria Tate. Pittm an was also Fries. Indeed, Pittman drew heavily on Fries's theories of language in responsible for the situation ally based matenals developed by the Com- the sixties, but American theory was largely unknown by British applied monwealth Office of Education in Sydney, Australia, used m the English linguists in the fiftie s.

The British theoreticians, however, had a differ- programs for immigrants in Australia. Thesewere publish ed for world- ent focus to thei r version of structuralism - the notion of "situatio n.

Matenals by Alexander " Our principal classroom activity in the teaching of English structure and other leading British textbook writers also reflected the pnnClples will be the oral practice of structures.

This ora l practice of controlled of Situational Language Teaching as they had evolved over a twenty- sentence patterns should be given in situatio ns designed to give the year period. The main characteristics of the approach were as fo llows: Language teaching begins with the spoken language.

Material is taught or- The theory that knowledge of structures must be linked to situations ally before it is presented in written form. The target language is the language of the classroom.

This may have reflected the functional trend in 3. I llritish linguistics since the thirties. Many British linguists had empha- 4. Vocabulary selection procedures are foll owed to ensure t at an essentla sized the close relationship between the structure of language and the general service vocabu lary is covered.

British linguists, such 5. Items of grammar are graded following the principle that simple forms "s J. Firth and M. H alliday, developed powerful views of should be taught before co mplex ones. Il'nguage in whi ch meaning, context, and situation were given a pro m- 6. Reading and writing are introduced once a sufficient leX ical and gra mm at- inent place: Hornby himself used the tetm the I,,,rposcful activity related to goals and situations in the real world. Later the terms Structural- Frisby How can Situ ational Language Tc: Frisby, for example, cites Oral compositi on ca n be a very val uab le exercise.

Palmer's views as authoritative: Neverrheless, the skill with which this acti vity is handled depends largely on the control of the language suggested by the teacher and used by the chil- As Palmer has pointed ou t, there are three processes in learning a langu age - dren.

Only when the teacher is reasonably certa in that learners can speak receiving the knowledge or materials, fix ing it in the memory by repetition, fairl y correctly within the limi ts of their kno wledge of sentence stru Cture and and using it in actual practice until it becomes a personal skill.

Pittman The fundamental is correct speech habits Such speech hab its can be cultivated by blind imita- Basic to the teaching of English in Situationa l Language Teaching is a ti ve drill. A structural syllabus is a list of the basic structures and sentence patterns of English, arranged according to Like the Direct Method, Siniationa l Language Teach ing ado pts an their order of presentation.

In Situational Language Teaching, structures inductive approach to the teaching of gramma r. The meaning of words are alwa ys taught within sentences, and voca bulary is chosen acco rding or structures is no t to be given through expl anation in eith er the native to how well it enables sentence patterns to be taught. Explanation Frisby gives an exampl e of the typical structural syllabus aro und is therefore discouraged, and the learner is expected to dedu ce the mean- which situa tio nal teaching was based: Extending structures and voca bulary to new sit- Sentence pattern Vo cabulary uations takes pl ace by generalization.

The lea rner is expected to apply 1st lesson This is That is. Yes it is. Rather, situation refers to the manner of pre- M'lll"ing and practicing senten ce patterns, as we shaJl see later.

The ob jectives of the Situational Language Teaching method are to teach a practical command of the four basi c skills of language, goals it shares with most meth ods of lang uage teaching.

But the skills are approached I ypes of learning and teaching activities through structure. Accuracy in both pronunciation and gramm ar is re- garded as crucial, and errors are to be avoided at all costs. Hterns and a drill -based manne r of practicing ing and writing skills, and this is achi eved thro ugh speech wll rle " Ik fore ' Wl ' sli: Till' Sill l: Pittman teacher is ever on the lookout for grammatica l and structural errors that Organizing review is a primary task for the teacher according to Pittman , who summarizes the By situation Pittman means the use of concrete objects, pictures, and realia, which together with actions and gestures can be used to dem- teacher's responsibilities as dealing with onstrate the meanings of new language items.

The meaning of 3. It is 4. Wherever pos- 5. Davies, 6. Other oral-practice techniques are sometimes used, including pair practice and group work. The role of instructional materials Situational Language Teaching is dependent upon both a textbook and Learner roles visual aids. The textbook conta ins tightly organized lessons planned In the initial stages of learning, the learner is required simply to li sten around different grammatical structures. Visual aids may beproduced and repeat what the teacher says and to respond to questions and com- hy the teacher or may be commercially produced; they conSIst of wall mands.

The learner has no control over the content of learn ing and is charts, Aashcards, pictures, stick figures, and so on. The VIsual element often regarded as likely to succumb to undesirable behaviors unless together with a carefully graded grammatical syllabus is a crucial aspect skillfully manipulated by the teacher. For example, the learner might of Situational Language Teaching, hence the importance of the textbook. The teacher is expected to be the master of hIS all costs see Pittman Later, more active participation is encour- I , tbook" Pittman This includes learners initiating responses and asking each other questions, although teacher-controlled introduction and practice of new language is stressed throughout see Davies, Roberts, and Rossner Procedure In the presentation stage of the lesson, pn ll crns to their automatic use in speech, reading, and writing.

Then the teacher "becomes more like the skillful li lt' li n. If S I, 1he lesson would then co nsist of four parts: Byrne The teacher is required to be a ski llful manipulator, using questions, commands, and other cues to eli cit CO ITC '" sentences l1 1ll': Ilioll from the learners.

III' VI ': There's a packet of pins in the box. There's a jar of rice in the box. Davies et a!. The structures being taught in the following lesson are "This is a. This is a watch. The sequence 2 x pointing to watch That's a watch. Listening practice in which the teacher obtains his student's attention and pens. All take your pens. This is a pen. A student.

Choral imitation in which students all together or in large groups repeat Teacher. This works best if the teacher gives a clear in - Students. Individual imitation in which the teacher asks several individual students Students. Isolation, in which the teacher isolates sounds, words or groups of words Teacher. That's a pencil. Take your books. This is a book.

Elicitation, in which the teacher, using mime, prompt words, gestures, Teacher. That's a notebook. You can now begin taking objects out of your box, making sure they are as 7. Substitution drilling, in which the teacher uses cue words words , plctures, far as possible not new vocabu lary items. Large objects may be placed in visi- numbers, names, etc. Smaller ones distributed to students. Drills are likewise related to "situations.

Learning Modern Languages. Routledge and Conclusion Kegan Paul. Hornby, A. The situational approach in language teaching.

Approach, method, procedure and technique

A Guide to Patterns and Usage in English. Oxford techniques advocated by proponents of the earlier Oral Approach in the University Press. British school of language teaching. They continue to be part of the Hornby, A. Gatenby, and H. In the mid-sixties, Hubbard, P. Jones, B. Thornton, and R. Essentials of English Grammar. Allen and underlying Situational Language Teaching was called into question.

We Unwin. The Teaching of English as a Foreign ing in Chapter 5. But because the principles of Situational Language Language. Baroda, India: Teaching, with its strong emphasis on oral practice, grammar, and sen- Morris, I.

O'Neill, R. Kernel Lessons Plus. Palmer, H. The Scientific Study and Teaching of Languages. Oxford University Press, Bibliography Palmer, H. Principles of Language Study. World BookCo. The Oral Method of Teaching Languages.

Alexander, L. New Concept English. Billows, F. The Techniques of Language Teaching. Specimens of English Construction Patterns. De- Byrne, D. Teaching Oral English. Grammar of English Words.

Coles, M. Access to English. Oxford University Palmer, H. The Teaching of Oral English. Situational English. Pa ttison, B. English Teaching in the World Today. Davies, P. Roberts, and R. Situational Lesson Plans. Mexico Pattison, B. Modern methods of language teaching. English Language City: Teaching 19 1: Faucett, L.

West, H. Palmer, and E. The Interim Pittman, G. Teaching Structural English. French, F. The Teaching of English Abroad. West, M. The Teaching of English: A Guide to the New Method Series. Oxford University Press, London: Frisby, A. Teaching English: A Handbook of English Grammar. Gatenby, E. English as a Foreign Language. Gauntlett, J. Teaching English as a Foreign Language. GUffey, P. Halliday, M. Mcintosh, and P. The l ,ill,J.! Vin ey. Ox ford: Ox ford U1Iiv ersit y Press. Textbooks did not exist for such languages.

The technique Bloomfield and his colleagues used was sometimes known as the " informant method," since it used a native speaker of the language - the info rmant - who served as a source of ph rases and vocabulary and who provided sentences for imitation, and a linguist, who supervised the learn ing experience.

The linguist did not necessaril y know the lan- guage but was trained in eliciting the basic stru cture of the language from the informant. T hus the students and the linguist were able to take Background part in guided conversation with the informant, and together they grad- ually learned how to speak the language, as well as to understand much The Coleman Report in recommended a reading-based approach of its basic grammar.

Students in such cou rses studied ten hours a day, to foreIgn language teachmg for use in American schools and colleges six days a week. There were generall y fifteen hours of drill with native Chapter 1. Th,s emph asIzed teachlllg the comprehensio n of texts. This was the system adopted by the army, and fOreign language, preceded by l,sts of vocabul ary. Rapid silent reading in small classes of mature and highly motivated stu dents, excellent results was the goal, but practice teachers often resorted to discussing the were often achieved.

Those involved in the teach ing of The Army Specialized Training Program lasted o nl y about two years English as a second language in th e Un ited States between the two world but attracted considerable attention in the popular press and in the wars used either a modified Direct Method approach, a reading-based academic community. For the next ten years the "Army Method" and approach, or a read mg-oral approac h Darian Unlike th e ap- its suitability for use in regular language programs was discussed.

But proach that was bemg developed by British applied li nguists during the the linguists who developed the ASTP were not interested primarily in same penod, there was little attempt to treat language co ntent system- language teaching.

The "methodology" of the Army Method, like the atically. Sentence patterns and grammar were introduced at the wh O Direct Method, derived fro m the intensity of contact with the target of the textbook write,: It or grammar that was mcluded. Ilowever, it did convince a number of prominent linguists of the va lue But the entry of the Un ited States into Wo rld War II had a significant oran intensive, oral-based approach to the learning of a foreign language.

To sup ply the U. L growing demand for foreign expertise in the teaching of English. Tho u- a speCial language trammg progra m.

These factors led to the emergence of the established m Audinl ingualisrn, T he. Hlguagc , Charles Fries , dirccror of the in sl'illl te, W: IIW tcnchillg. The approach developed by linguists at Michigan and other univer- For Fries, grammar, or "structure," was the starting point. The structure sities became known variously as the Oral Approach, the Aural-Oral of the language was identified with its basic sentence patterns and gram- Approach, and the Structural Approach.

It advocated aural training first, matical structures. The language was taught by systematic attention to then pronunci ation training, followed by speaklllg, readll1g, and wntll1g. Language was identified with speech, and speech was approached through Pattern practice was a basic classroom technique.

Communicative language teaching

T his approach influenced the way languages were taught terns that constitute the learner's task. They require drill, drill, and more the United States throughout the fifties. As an approach to the teaching drill, and only enough vocab ulary to make such drills possible" Hockett of English as a foreign language the.

ThIS Michigan was not the only university involved in developing courses was a period when expertise in linguistics was regarded as a necessary and materials for teaching English. A number of other similar programs and sufficient fou ndation for expertise in language teaching.

Not sur- were established, some of the earliest being at Georgetown University prisingly, the classroom materials produced by Fries and linguists at and American University, Washington, D.

They were widely used, however, and the ap- within the United States and abroad, in supervisi ng programs for the plied linguistic principles on which they were based were thought to teaching of English Moulton In the American Council of incorporate the most adva nced scientific approach to language teachll1g.

Learned Societies, under contract to the U. State Department, was If there was any learning theory underlying the Aural-Oral matenals, It commissioned to develop textbooks for teaching English to speakers of was a commonsense application of the idea that practice makes perfect.

The format the lingu ists involved There is no explicit reference to then-current learning theory in Fries's in this project followed was known as the "general form": A lesson work.

It was the incorporation of the linguistic principles of the Aural- began with work on pronunciation, morphology, and grammar, fol- O ral approach with state-of-the-art psychological learning theory in the lowed by drills and exercises. The guidelines were published as Structural Illid-fifties that led to the method that came to be known as Notes and Corpus: This became an influential document and together with the "gen- 'rcased attention given to foreign language teaching in the United States eral form" was used as a guide to developing English courses for speakers ",ward the end of the s.

Government acknowledged the teaching experts at this period sounded similar to the British Oral Ap- IIced for a more intensive effort to teach foreign languages in order to proach, although the two traditions developed independently.

The Amer- prevent Americans from becoming isolated from scientific advances made ican approach differed, however, in its strong alliance with American III other countries. The National Defense Educatio n Act , among structural linguistics and its applied linguistic applications, particularly II Iher measures, provided funds for the study and analysis of modern contrastive analysis. Teachers were encouraged to attend summer II1stltutes to learning a foreign language were attributed to the conflict of different Ilnl"'oVC their knowledge of foreign languages and to learn the principles structural systems i.

Lan- ological patternS of the native tongue and the target language. Con- III I. They of interference to be predicted and addressed through carefu ll y prepared ,hnv on Ih e earli er ex perience of the army programs and the Aural-Oral teaching materials. Thus was born a major industry in American applied II I: Iken frolll behaviorisl' psycholo!

I Sli vc 1l1l f'ti ys is. The method was widely adopted for teaching foreign phrases, clauses, sentence types systems underlyin g the grammar of the languages in North American colleges and universities. It provided the language. Language was viewed as a system of structurally related ele- methodological foundation for materials for the teaching of foreign lan- ments for the encoding of meaning, the elements being phonemes, mor- guages at college and university level in the United States and Canada, phemes, words, structures, and sentence types.

The term structural referred and its principles formed the basis of such widely used series as the Lado to these characteristics: Although the method began to fall from favor in the late sixties guage samples could be exhaustively described at any structural level of for reasoris we shall discuss later, Audiolingualism and materials based description phonetic, phonemic, morphological , etc.

Let us els were thought of as systems within systems - that is, as being pyram- examine the features of the Audiolingual Method at the levels of ap- idally structured; phonemic systems led to morphemic systems, and these proach, design, and procedure.

Learning a language, it was assumed, entails mastering the elements or building blocks of the language and learning the rules by which these Approach elements are combined, from phoneme to morpheme to word to phrase to sentence. The phonological system defines those sound elements that Theory of language contrast meaningfully with one another in the language phonemes , their phonetic realizations in specific environments allophones , and The theory of language underlying Audiolingualism was derived from their permissible sequences phonotactics.

The phonological and gram- a view proposed by American linguists in the s - a view that came matical systems of the language constitute the organization of language to be known as structural linguistics. Linguistics had emerged as a flour- and by implication the units of production and comprehension.

The ishing academic discipline in the s, and the structural theory of grammatical system consists of a listing of grammatical elements and language constituted its backbone. Structural linguistics had developed rules for their linear combination into words, phrases, and sentences. Traditional approaches to Rule-ordered processes involve addition, deletion, and transposition of the study of language had linked the study of language to philosophy elements.

Grammar was considered a An important tenet of structural linguistics was that the primary me- branch of logic, and the grammatical categories of Indo-European lan- clium of language is oral: Speech is language.

Since many languages do guages were thought to represent ideal categories in languages. Many not have a written form and we learn to speak before we learn to read nineteenth-century language scholars had viewed modern European lan- ur write, it was argued that language is "primarily what is spoken and guages as corruptions of classical grammar, and languages from other only secondarily what is written" Brooks Therefore, it was as- parts of the world were viewed as primitive and underdeveloped.

This was contrary The reaction against traditional grammar was prompted by the move- ru popular views of the relationship of the spoken and written forms of ment toward positivism and empiricism, which Darwin's Origin of the I"nguage, since it had been widely assumed that language existed prin- Species had helped promote, and by an increased interest in non- cipa lly as symbols written on paper, and that spoken language was an European languages on the part of scholars.

A more practical interest imperfect realization of the pure written version. As linguists discovered new sound types and T his scientific approach to language analysis appeared to offer the new patterns of linguistic invention and organization, a new interest in lo nndations for a scientific' approach to language teaching.

In the phonetics, phonology, morphology, and syntax developed. By the s, Ameri can lin gui st Wi lli am Moulton, in a report prepared for the 9th the scientific approach to the study of language was thought to consist Int ernational Con gress of Linguists, proclaimed the linguistic principles of collecting examples of what speakers said and analyzingothem ac- whi ch I"n gua gc teachin g methodo logy should be based: Tea ch the cordin g to categorics of Latin grammar. I'h ,.

For example, since linguists normally described languages be- Stimulus Since speech was now held to be primary and writing "" Negative reinforcement behavior not likely to occur agai n secondary, it was assumed that language teaching should focus on mas- tery of speech and that writing or even written pro mpts should be with- Fignre 4. Since the structure is what is important and unique about a language, ea rl y practice shou ld focus on mastery of phonological and grammatica l structures ers say, not what someone thinks they ought to say Languages are rather than on mastery of vocabulary.

But a method cannot be based Out of these various influences emerged a number of lea rning prin- simply on a theory of language. It also needs to refer to the psychology ciples, which became the psychological foundation s of Audiolingualism of learning and to lea rning theory.

It is to this aspect of Audiolingualism and ca me to shape its methodological practices. Among the more central that we now turn. Foreign language learning is basically a process of mechanical habit for- Theory of learning mation. Good habits are formed by giving correct responses rather than by making mistakes. By memorizing dialogues and performing pattern The language teaching theoreticians and merhodologists who developed drills the chances of producing mistakes are minimized.

Language is ver- Audiolingualism not o nl y had a convincing and powerful theory of bal behavior - that is, the automatic production and comprehension of language to draw upon but they were also working in a period when a utterances - and can be learned by inducing the students to do likewise.

Language skills are learned more effectively if the items to be learned in chology - claimed to have tapped the secrcts of all human learning, the target langua ge are presented in spoken form before they 3fe seen in written form. Aura l-oral training is needed to provide the foundation for mciudlOg language learning. Behaviorism, like structural linguistics, is the development of other language skills.

Analogy provides a better foundation for langu age learning than analysis. To the behaviorist, the human being is an organism capable Analogy involves the processes of genera lization and discrimination. Ex- of a wide repertoire of behaviors. The occurrence of these behaviors is planations of rules are therefore not given until st udents have practiced a dependent upon three crucial elements in learning: Hence the approach to the teaching of gra mmar is lOappropnate and encourages the repetition or suppression of the esse ntially inductive rather th an deductive.

A representation 4. The meanings that the words of a language have for the native speaker of this can be seen in Figure 4. Teaching a language thus involves teaching aspects o f the cultural sysrem of the people who speak rhe language Rivers To apply this rheory to language learning is to identify In advocating these principles, proponents of Audiolingualism were the organism as the foreign lan guage learner, the behavior as verbal drawing on the theory of a well-developed school of American psy- behavior, the stimulus as what is taught or presented of the foreign chology - behaviorism.

The prominent Harvard behaviorist B. Skinner language, the response as the learner's reaction to the stimulus and the h: Audiolinguali sm is a linguistic, or structure-based, app roach to language teaching. The sta rting point is a linguistic sy ll ab us, which contains the key items of phonology, morphology, and syntax of the language ar- Design ranged according to their o rder of presentati o n. These ma y have been deri ved in part from a contrastive analysis of th e differences between Audiolingualists demanded a complete reorientation of the foreign lan- the native tongue and the target language, sin ce these differences are guage curriculum.

Like the nineteenth-century reformers, they advocated thought to be the cause of the major diffi cul ti es the lea rner will en- a return to speech-based instruction with the primary o bj ective of oral counter. In additi on, a lexical syllabus of basic vocabulary items is also profici ency, an d dismissed the study of gramma r or literature as the goal usuall y specifi ed in advance.

In Foundations for English Teaching Fries of foreign language teaching. The language skills are taught in the order of li stening, speaking, reading, and writing. Listen ing is viewed largely as training in aural discrimination of basic sound patterns. The language may be presented Objectives entirely orally at first; written representations are usuall y withheld from Brooks distinguishes between short-range and long-ra nge objectives of lea rners in ea rl y stages.

Short-range ob jectives include training in lis- The lea rner's activities must at first be co nfined to th e audio lingual and ges- tening comprehension, accurate pronunciation, recognition of speech tural-vis ua l bands of language behavior. O nl y when he is thoroughly famili ar wi th sounds, arrange- tives imply three others: Broo ks Long-range objectives "must: An attempt is be language as the native speaker uses it Th ere must be some knowl- made to minimize the possibilities for making mistakes both in speaking edge of a second language as it is possessed by a true bilingualist" Brooks and writing by using a tightly structured approach to the presentation At more advanced levels, mo re complex reading In practice this mea ns that the focus in the ea rl y stages is on oral an d writing tasks ma y be introduced.

Oral pn - ficiency is equated with accurate pronunciation and grammar and the ability to respo nd quickly and accurately in speech situations. The teach- Types of learning and teaching activities ing of listening comprehension, pronunciatio n, grammar, and vocabu- Dia logues and drills form the basis of audiolingual classroom practices. Reading and writing I i: I" strate situatio ns in which structures might be used as well as some Language is primarily speech in audiolingual theory, but speaking skills r ilitural aspects of th e target language.English as a Foreign Language.

Some are designed to replace the teacher, so that For some methods, the role of the teacher has been specIfied m detaIl. Newbury House. Within each chapter. I" h IS the wo rld's most w idely studied foreign language. Some methods focus primarily on oral skills oriented courses e.

T he lack of an alternati ve to Audiolingualism in Cliffs, N.

JENELLE from Cape Coral
I am fond of reading novels valiantly. Look over my other posts. One of my extra-curricular activities is rafting.