AIN E AKBARI IN URDU PDF
Urdu eBook. Ain-e-Akbari Vol Allama Abul Fazal Download PDF. Back to APNA Web | English Books | Shahmukhi Books | Gurmukhi Books | Urdu Books. The original Persian text was translated into English in three volumes. The first volume, translated by Heinrich Blochmann () consisted of. Ain-i-Akbari, Volume I, (English transla- History of Tahsil Jhajjar (Urdu). Rajas of the Geographical Association, Geography, Volume XLIV, Part I,. January.
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The Ain-i-Akbari (Persian: آئینِ اکبری ) or the "Administration of Akbar", is a 16th -century . Print/export. Create a book · Download as PDF · Printable version. The Ain i Akbari English by Abdul Fazl Allami Pdf Free Download The Ain i Akbari complete 3 Volumes Authored by Abul Fazl Allami. Translated from the. The Ain i Akbari, English translation of Akbar Nama by Shaikh Abdulfazl in Pdf format. Check out the following links to read online or download it in Pdf Bahishti Zewar In Urdu Complete By Maulana Ashraf Ali Thanvi.
Toward the end of his reign and under his successors these limits were relaxed. Originally each grade carried a definite rate of pay, out of which the holders were required to maintain a quota of horses, elephants, beasts of burden, and carts.
But even in Akbar's days and in spite of safeguards introduced by him, the number of men actually supplied by the mansabdars rarely corresponded to the number indicated by his rank, and under Akbar's successors greater latitude was allowed. The mansabdars were paid either in cash or by temporary grant of jagirs.
Theoretically, the mansabdars received enormous salaries, which appear all the more excessive when it is realized that they did not normally maintain all the troops expected of them.
It was probably an awareness of this that led Shah Jahan to introduce the practice of paying salaries to the mansabdars for only four months of the year instead of twelve, the implication being that the actual income for part of the year was equivalent to what the emperor had originally intended for the whole year.
The tendency to luxurious expenditure was undoubtedly heightened by the mansabdar's knowledge that on his death, his whole property would be taken over by the state, pending satisfaction of any outstanding claims by the treasury.
But while there may have been little incentive to save within the system, the high scale of salaries enabled the state to attract the ablest and most ambitious individuals from almost the whole of southern and western Asia. Appointment to the ranks of mansabdars was made by the emperor, usually on the recommendation of military leaders, provincial governors, or court officials.
In addition to the mansabdars, there was a class known as ahadis, who though holding no official rank, were employed in posts in the palace. They were usually young men of good families, who were not fortunate enough to secure a mansab on [] their first application. Given an opportunity to show their worth, they could then be promoted to the ranks of mansabdars. These mansabdars have been compared to the Civil Service during British rule in that they formed an all-India cadre of officials, liable to transfer anywhere in the empire and providing the personnel for all major offices.
The existence of a single imperial cadre undoubtedly gave a cohesion and unity to the Mughal empire that was lacking during the sultanate. Provincial Administration Provincial administration was greatly improved under Akbar, and in this respect the Mughal period differs substantially from the sultanate.
The boundaries of the provincial units were more definitely fixed; and a uniform administrative pattern, with minor modifications to suit local conditions, was developed for all parts of the empire. Further, drawing upon the experiments introduced by Sher Shah, the provincial administration was strengthened, and each province was provided with a set of officials representing all branches of state activity. By the introduction of a cadre of mansabdars, liable to be transferred anywhere at the behest of the central government and by the introduction of other checks, the control over the provinces was made more effective.
The principal officer was the governor, called sipah salar under Akbar and nazim under his successors, but popularly known as subahdar and later only as subah. He was usually a mansabdar of much lower status than the governor, but he was independent of the governor's control and was directly under the imperial diwan.
The next provincial functionary was the bakhshi, or the paymaster. He performed a number of duties, including, occasionally, the functions of the provincial newswriter.
The diwan-i-buyutat was the provincial representative of the khan-i-saman, and looked after roads [] and government buildings, supervised imperial stores, and ran state workshops. The sadr and the qazi were entrusted with religious, educational, and judicial duties.
The faujdar and the kotwal were the two other important provincial officials. The faujdar, who was the administrative head of the sarkar district , was appointed by the emperor but was under the supervision and guidance of the governor.
The kotwals were not provincial officers, but were appointed by the central government in the provincial capitals and other important cities, and performed a number of executive and ministerial duties similar to the Police Commissioners during British rule in Bombay, Calcutta, and Madras. The ports were in charge of the mir bahr, corresponding to the modern Port Commissioner, but with powers over customs also.
The Mughals interfered very little with the local life of the village communities, for they had no resident functionary of their own in the villages. The muqaddam was normally the sarpanch head of the village panchayat, or council and these panchayats continued to deal with local disputes, arrange for watch and ward, and perform many functions now entrusted to the local bodies.
Finances The tax structure of the Mughal empire was relatively simple in its theoretical formulation, however much it was complicated by changing needs and local circumstances. Both revenue and expenditure were divided between the central and the provincial government. The central government reserved for itself land revenue, customs, profits from the mints, inheritance rights, and monopolies. Land revenue was the most important source of income, as it has been throughout Indian history, and more than doubled in value between the reigns of Akbar and Shah Jahan.
The principal items of expenditure for the central government were defense, the general civil administration of the empire including the religious organizations , maintenance of the court and the royal palace, and the cost of buildings and other public works.
The provincial sources of income were the assignments of land revenue granted to the provincial governor and his officials as a remuneration [] for their services, a variety of local taxes and cesses, transit dues and duties, and fines and presents. These were replaced during British rule by the somewhat large tehsils or talukas.
The revenue staff had also to perform miscellaneous administrative duties, including the keeping of the public peace, and recruitment of the military forces. The suba was modeled after the central imperial structure. The sarkar was in the charge of the faujdar, or military commander, who combined the functions of the modern district magistrate and superintendent of police.
The revenue work in the sarkar was looked after by the amalguzar, who would correspond to the modern afsar-i-mal revenue officer.
The levy of land revenue was based on survey settlements calculated after a detailed measurement and classification of the cultivated areas. The nature of the crops grown and the mean prevailing market prices were also taken into consideration in fixing the final assessment.
This assessment system, evolved after many experiments, became the basis of the survey settlement of the British period. Akbar's revenue system in most areas was raiyatwari, the revenue being collected directly as far as possible from the individual cultivator, and was payable in cash.
Akbar introduced the system in the greater part of northern India, and during the viceroyalty of Aurangzeb, it was extended to the Deccan. The revenue system as evolved under Akbar was thoroughly sound, but the government demand was heavy and amounted to one-third of the produce. Abul Fazl tried to justify it by referring to the abolition of many miscellaneous cesses and taxes, but it is not certain whether all the cesses abolished by royal order were given up by subordinate officials.
In the settlement of the Deccan during Aurangzeb's viceroyalty, the state share was reduced to one-fourth. The basic data was collected by detailed measurement of land and assessment of the yield and estimates of productivity of each pargana or assessment area.
The Ain i Akbari
When sufficient data had been collected the system of group assessment was introduced, with the alternatives of measurement and sharing being held in reserve. That the Mughal rulers wanted the revenue system to operate fairly is evident from the guidance to collectors of revenue given in the Ain-i-Akbari.
The British paid special attention to revenue administration, and introduced many significant improvements, but it can be said without injustice that on certain points the Mughal system compared favorably with the one that evolved over a long period in British India.
As an example, one may take the assessment of lands newly brought under cultivation or reclaimed after having fallen out of cultivation. A variety of scales of assessment was applied to such lands, such as a low initial rate, rising to the full amount after five years. Their merits are inquired into and the coin of knowledge passes the current.
Some pray his majesty to remove religious doubt; other again seek his advice for settling a worldly matter; other want medicines for their cure. Like these many other requests were made.
The salaries of large number of men from Iran , Turkey , Europe , Hindustan and Kashmir are fixed in a manner described below, and the men themselves are taken before His Majesty by the paymasters. Formerly it had been custom for man to come with horses and accoutrements; but now only men appointed to the post of Ahadi were allowed to bring horses.
The salary is proposed by the officer who bring them, which is then increased or decreased, though it is generally increased; for the market of His Majesty is never dull. The number of men brought before His Majesty depends on number of men available.
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Every Monday all such horsemen are mustered as were left from the preceding week. With the view of increasing army and zeal of officers, His Majesty gives to each who brings horsemen, a present of two dams for each horsemen. Regulation regarding education Ain 25 Book 2 His Majesty orders that every school boy must learn to write the letters of the alphabet first and then learn to trace their several forms.
They may be practised for a week after which boy should learn some prose and poetry by heart, and then commit to memory some verses to the praise of God, or moral sentences, each written separately. Care is to be taken that he learns everything by himself but the teacher must assist him a little.
The original Persian text was translated into English in three volumes. The second volume, translated by Col. These three volumes were published by the Asiatic Society of Calcutta as a part of their Bibliotheca Indica series. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. The Mughul Empire , Mumbai: He is also an originator of much in Urdu literary tradition. It was during his time that Urdu replaced Persian as the more popular literary language.
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References 1. My translation is from the Persian text in this edition. Google Scholar 5. All translations are from Z. Abbasi, ed.
Numbers of couplets follow this text. Google Scholar 1. For the social and political impact of these invasions and the resultant Muslim rule, see M. Google Scholar For a useful survey of the economic impact, see T.The principal officers of the central government were four: 1 diwan; 2 mir bakhshi; 3 mir saman; and 4 sadr.
The other man asked for the hatred of Duniya and the love of God so that he can devote all his life for the remembrance of Allah.
Translations[ edit ] The original Persian text was translated into English in three volumes. The artillery was paid wholly out of the imperial treasury. All translations are from Z.
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