FAT CHANCE BOOK PDF
He is the author of many academic works, and of the popular book “Fat. Chance: beating the odds against sugar, processed food, obesity, and. Robert Lustig is at the forefront of war against sugar — showing us that it's toxic, it's addictive, and it's everywhere because the food companies want it to be. His minute YouTube video "Sugar: The Bitter Truth" has been viewed more than 7 million times. Chance by Robert Lustig is just such a book, clearly aimed at a general, rather than a medical or scientific readership. So is. Fat Chance a diet book, a science.
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The landmark New York Times best seller that reveals how the explosion of sugar in our diets has created an obesity epidemic, and what we can do to save. Books by Robert Lustig. The Hacking of The Fat Chance: Beating the Odds Against Sugar, Processed Food, Obesity, and Disease Author: Robert Lustig. Fat chance by Lesléa Newman; 2 editions; First published in ; Subjects: In library, Jews, Diaries, Weight control, There's no description for this book yet.
For example: there is fructose in fruit, so why isn't eating fruit bad? Because the fibre in fruit counteracts the noxious effects of the sugar, which is why it's better to eat your fruit than to drink it. A glass of orange juice contains more sugar than the equivalent volume of Coke. The bitter pill of Lustig's philosophy is sweetened by an agreeably cute humour: "Naturally occurring fructose comes from sugarcane, fruits, some vegetables, and honey. The first three have way more fibre than fructose, and the last is protected by bees.
Yet to dismiss every such tract as populist scaremongering would be just as irrational as to believe them all.
The "experts" — whom it is fashionable in some quarters always to dismiss wholesale as a compromised class — did not, after all, turn out to be wrong about the harmful effects of cigarettes. Because, or so this thinking runs, they are all low-sugar and high-fibre regimes. Fat Chance is a persuasively indignant public-policy manifesto, but it's also a self-help book; curiously, each strain flatly contradicts the other. The crux is whether people can actually change their behaviour.
Of course they can, you might retort, citing friends who have successfully slimmed; but Lustig spends most of the book denying that this is even possible, the better to justify government regulation. He suggests agricultural subsidies for green vegetables instead of for corn and soy, and taxing foods that have added sugar.
This latter would be a regressive tax, he admits, but the benefits would also accrue mostly to those on low incomes. But his insistence on the complete irrelevance of "personal responsibility" leads him to rely on some ropey metaphysics and oversimplified science.
And because obesity changes our hormonal balance, "weight loss is next to impossible". Apparently, then, we can't choose what to do. Lustig's description is a more specialised one, recalling the tradition of "behaviourism" in psychology. A lot of the fiber that they tout in these breads is actually added soluble fiber, such as cilium and things like that.
Now you need those soluble fiber molecules, but you also need the insoluble ones. You need the cellulose. You need the stringy stuff. You need the hard stuff because the two together actually help you form a barrier on the inside of your intestine.
I liken it in the book to what happens with the hair-catcher on your bathtub drain. So it's this little plastic latticework with little holes in it. So if you let the water run, the water goes down the drain. But if you take a shower, and there's hair coming, you know, the hair gets caught, and then you've got a stopped-up drain. Same idea here.
The insoluble fiber is the plastic latticework. The soluble fiber is the hair getting caught in the holes. And then when you have the two together, you have a real barrier, and what that does is it reduces the rate of flux, the rate of absorption from the gut into the bloodstream so that your liver can actually handle the onslaught of all those calories. And so you end up doing the right thing with those calories instead of the wrong thing, which is making liver fat out of it.
So when you consume the two together, you're good. Problem is, that's not what the food industry is selling you. FLATOW: One of the things - let's talk more about fiber because you mentioned that one of the worst things we can do with our fruits and vegetables is to put them through the juicer because that wrecks the whole So basically when you put juice in a juicer, you're sheering the insoluble fiber to smithereens.
The soluble fiber will still be there, but, you know, you need that scaffolding, that latticework to be able to generate that gel that's on the inside of the intestine. You can actually see on electron microscopy the gel that forms on the inside of the intestine. And what that does it is it number one prevents the absorption, number two it allows a lot of the calories that you're consuming to be delivered further down the intestine so that the bacteria in your intestine will consume it instead.
Perfect example: almonds. You consume calories in almonds. How many of those do you absorb? It turns out Thirty of those calories are going to get metabolized by the bacteria in your intestine because the fiber in the almonds will deliver more of the nutrient down the intestine so that the bacteria can get it. And that's good because that means you actually absorb fewer calories than you eat. Again, a calorie is not a calorie. So fiber is one of our - the best things the best things that we can do for ourselves.
Fiber is the stealth nutrient.
Fiber is maybe the single most important thing we've got in our natural food diet, and of course fiber is the thing that the food industry removes for its own purposes. I mean, explain the different kinds of sugars and how the corn syrup fits in there. So there are monosaccharides, meaning single molecules, and then there are disaccharides, meaning combinations of two molecules together.
The monosaccharides are the following three: glucose, and glucose is important, and your body will make glucose if you don't take it in because it's so important because every cell in your body, in fact every cell on the planet, can metabolize glucose for energy.
Glucose is the energy of life. Glucose is, for lack of a better word, necessary.
Then you have galactose. Galactose is the monosaccharide, the single molecule that's found in milk sugar.
Fat Chance Cookbook Serves Up Recipes for Good Health
Now unless you have a disease called galactosemia, which I help take care of, which is about one in 10, babies, which will kill you by age two months if you don't diagnose it, your liver will turn galactose to glucose in about a nanosecond. So galactose is essentially glucose for the overwhelming majority of the population.
Obviously those who have lactose intolerance, you know, can't consume galactose because, you know, they can't absorb it, and that's a different issue but not the one we're talking about right now.
And then there's this other third molecule called fructose. And fructose is the sweet part of table sugar. It's the molecule we seek.
We love fructose. We think fructose, you know, hung the moon. We think that any food that has sugar, fructose, in it is a safe food to eat, and that is actually built into our DNA. It is a Darwinian precept because there is no foodstuff on the planet that is both sweet and acutely poisonous.
This was the signal to our ancestors that any given food was good to eat. So we love this stuff. Think about it this way: You got children? On average 13 times, that's what science says. But if the food is sweet, how many times? Just once. We are programmed to like the stuff. Now you put glucose and glucose together, that's called maltose, that's what's in beer. You put glucose and galactose together, that's lactose, that's what's in milk. And then you put glucose and fructose together, that's sucrose or table sugar.
Everybody understand the different kinds now. So we have six different compounds we're talking about when we talk about sugar. But I'm only talking about the sweet stuff.
I'm talking about sucrose or high-fructose corn syrup, which is basically one glucose, one fructose, it's just made from corn. There is an enzyme process that turns glucose into fructose. It's still half-and-half, one-and-one, and that's why it's irrelevant. They're the same.
Table sugar, cane sugar, beet sugar, that's what the whole world has. High-fructose corn syrup is only available in the United States, Japan, Canada and very limited exposure in parts of Europe. And guess what? The whole world now has obesity and metabolic syndrome.
So it's not about high-fructose corn syrup per se. The reason high-fructose corn syrup is such a problem is because it's cheap.
It's so cheap that it found its way into foods that never had sugar before. It found its way into salad dressings.
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It found its way into pretzels. It found its way into hamburger buns. It found its way into hamburger meat, ask Taco Bell what they put in their meat. Bottom line: We are gorging on the stuff because it is now cheap, and in when DuPont invented the two-liter bottle, now we have the perfect fructose delivery vehicle, and look what's happened to obesity and metabolic syndrome since.
LUSTIG: That's right, and there was a paper that just came out last week, it's gotten a lot of press, from Yale, Journal of the American Medical Association, showing that fructose doesn't cause changes in cerebral blood flow like glucose does, and it doesn't cause satiety like glucose does, and it doesn't change the hormones that regulate energy balance like glucose does.
So glucose is, for lack of a better word, good.
And fructose, for lack of a better word, is not. You can tweet us scifri. Get into the conversation. Do you agree with Dr. Have you got stuff you'd like to talk about? We'll be back right after this break.
I don't want to get stuck on fructose because there's a lot more stuff in your book. But I can't avoid it because it's a topic of discussion. And some of your FLATOW: Yeah, some of your critics even like to point to the fact that we're consuming less high-fructose corn syrup and added sugars today, but we're still getting fat.
How do you respond to that? Well first of all, we are consuming a little bit less than we were, say, a decade ago. A decade ago, we were consuming pounds of sugar per year per person. We are right now at pounds.
So yes, we have cut back slightly. The problem is that the data suggests that our bodies can only process approximately, I would say, somewhere between 50 and 65 pounds of sugar per year based on calculations that are related to what we do with alcohol, and fructose and alcohol are basically metabolized by the liver pretty much the same.
And that was sort of the thing that got all the attention was the analogy between the two. So we are still about double over our allotment, and that's the problem.
Fat Chance: Beating the Odds Against Sugar, Processed Food, Obesity, and Disease
The problem is that even though we have cut back slightly because diet sodas have increased their appeal. Currently in America, 42 percent of all beverage - you know, beverages made by the soda companies are now diet, so that has reduced total sugar consumption slightly - it's not nearly enough. And we are still way over our threshold.
LUSTIG: Well, the antidote, unfortunately, in so many public health venues, and this is a public health crisis, Medicare will be broke by the year unless we get a handle on this, and there is no drug target for metabolic syndrome, bottom line, the answer is reduce availability. And that of course gets everybody's hackles, you know, up. The whole concept of, you know, the libertarianism, keep your hands out of my kitchen, you know, don't tell me what to eat.
Well you know what? We've already been told what to eat because of the , food items that are available in the American grocery store today, 80 percent of them are laced with added sugar.
Bottom line is you've already been told what to eat. You don't have a choice about what to eat. Your choice has already been co-opted. So when this comes right down to it, it's really who do you want in your kitchen. Do you want the government, who will take away your wallet and your freedom, or do you want the food industry, who has already taken away your wallet, your freedom and your health?
That's your real choice. You know, I really have always tried to eat very healthy, but it wasn't until I developed gestational diabetes that I realized how incredibly complex it is and how much misinformation there is out there, particularly around sugar.
Now that I have an infant, a six-month-old, I have other children, but it's just been since having gestational diabetes that I've learned about this. But now that I have a six-month-old, and I'm trying to, you know, introduce solid foods - you can hear here in the background there - what about the baby cereal that's touted as wholegrain, organic? What - following your recommendations, Dr. Lustig, how do you feed a baby healthy solid food?
We'll let you get back to your kids. The fact of the matter is that even baby formula is laced with sugar. The formula Isomil is lactose-free. What do they substitute? They substitute sucrose.
Coca-cola is You know, Isomil is And there is sugar in virtually all of standard baby foods, and the reason is because that way the kid will eat it. So we have this big issue about whether or not this is a good thing or not. Obviously parents want their kids, you know, to eat. The question is: Is this the best way to get them to do it? There's a toddler formula called Enfagrow, and basically what it is, it's a toddler milkshake.
It's enormously chock full with sugar. And the company that makes it Can you make your own food, or is there something What do you think happened before there was Gerber? What do you think happened before there were all of these, you know, baby food companies.
Yes, you can. What I think the baby food companies need to do is they need to cut back on the added sugar. I think that the entire food industry needs to cut back on the added sugar.
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The problem is they have no impetus to do so. I'm waiting to see whether or not enough education of the public will actually put pressure on the food industry to do so.
Lustig, I am a huge, huge fan of yours. But here is my question: I'm actually a nurse practitioner, and I'm addicted to sugar. It's sad but true, totally addicted. What would be your suggestion for getting somebody off sugar? I mean obviously you can say stop eating it, but as you know if you have an addiction, that's easier said than done.
We know from other addictive substances that because the dopamine receptors in the reward center are down-regulated by whatever that substrate is, and it can be nicotine, alcohol, heroin, cocaine, amphetamine, it takes three weeks of abstinence for those dopamine receptors to come back.
And the cravings still stay for many, many months, even sometimes years afterwards. This is a major problem in addiction is how do you deal with those.
So how do we deal with addiction with any other substance? The answer is: Number one, cold turkey; number two, there are some medications that can be used, for instance, say, Wellbutrin is used for smoking, and there are some other things you can do.It reveals the real reasons we why we are a fat nation and how to cure the obesity epidemic.
Ascribing personal responsibility to the obese individual is not a rational argument for an eminently practical reason: I suggest you choose now.
There are people who understand that things that make your insulin go up are the things that are going to make you gain weight. And finally last quote, a standard six-ounce Yoplait yogurt has 11 grams of added sugar.
So you can keep your liver, you can keep your muscle insulin-sensitive. They're just not obese. I'm waiting to see whether or not enough education of the public will actually put pressure on the food industry to do so.
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