LIPID METABOLISM PDF
Lipid nomenclature. • Fatty acids. • triacylglycerols: know structure. • phospholipids. • waxes. • sphingolipids. • Glycosphingolipids. • Isoprenoids. • Steriods. PDF | Cancer cells are known to display major alterations in their lipid metabolism. These metabolic modifications facilitate cancer cell. Introduction to Lipid Metabolism. Roles of Lipids. Lipids have a wide variety of roles in biological systems. These roles are a consequence of their chemical and .
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Lipid Metabolism I. Dr. Kevin Ahern. Page 2. Fat and Glycerophospholipid Synthesis. 1. 2. 3. 1 Glycero Phospho. Lipid. Glycerophospholipids / Phosphatides. Introduction: lipld metabolism. A. C. Frazer Hormonal control of the circulating lipids. G. S. Boyd & M. F. Oliver Biosynthesis of fatty acids. Prlscilla He/e. ❑By the end of lecture the student should: ✓Identify importance of lipids in food. ✓Describe digestion of different types of lipids. ✓Illustrate absorption of lipids.
Acetoacetate 3-hydroxybutyrate -- a reduced derivative of acetoacetate.
You can either make mevalonate in the cytosol or Acetoacetate in the mitochondria. The enzyme can divert here to generate more Acetyl-CoA. A low Insulin:Glucagon ratio promotes the production of ketone-bodies.
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That is, Glucagon promotes it. It builds up under the influence of Glucagon because Glucagon promotes beta-Oxidation in adipose tissue, and beta-Oxidation leaves us with lots Acetyl-CoA. This acetyl-CoA makes its way to the liver and builds up.
Glucagon also promotes gluconeogenesis in the liver. Oxaloacetate is therefore diverted to work on making glucose and is hence unavailable for the TCA cycle.
So the TCA cycle is actually depressed in the liver, under the influence of glucagon. The result of a and b above is that Acetyl-CoA tends to build up in the liver, under the influence of high Glucagon levels. Under these conditions, the liver will shunt the excess Acetyl-CoA to the production of ketone bodies. It mobilizes lots of fats in response to little insulin. Those fats make their way to the liver where they overload the Acetyl-CoA supply in the liver, and production of ketone bodies results.
Blood is exposed to this layer. Internal Elastic Lamina and Membrane -- expands and contracts as needed.
Medial Layer -- the main layer of smooth muscle, which expands and contracts under regulation. This muscle is interspersed with connective tissue.
Adventitia Layer -- outer layer of fibroblast cells, there to nourish and sustain the muscle cells. Mechanical Injury can occur with hypertension, especially at bifurcation points in the arterial tree. Diabetes -- excess glucose can be a source of chemical injury, if it glycates cells in the region see small-group discussion Nicotine -- may cause a chemical insult to vascular walls in a similar way.
Layers of lipid-filled macrophages alternating with layers of smooth muscle cells.
These cells are rich in free cholesterol. Core of necrotic material, including smooth muscle, macrophages, and lipid, surrounded by a dense fibrous sheath of connective tissue.
Increased tendency to rupture and causes thrombosis. It activates LCAT, which in turn promotes breakdown of cholesterol-containing lipoproteins.
Apo-B Very large. Also plays structural role. Apo-B Structural protein in chylomicrons. Apo-CII: Serves as a cofactor for lipoprotein lipase -- to aid in breakdown of lipoproteins.
The presence of different alleles of this protein in brain cells has related to Alzheimer's Disease, in recent research. That is, the product of the endocytosis gives negative feedback. O and N-Linked glycosylation regions. Remnants are the leftovers of the chylomicron particles, after they have already dumped off their fatty acids.
In the cytosol of epithelial cells, triglycerides and cholesterol are packaged into bigger particles called chylomicrons which are amphipathic structures that transport digested lipids. Chylomicrons are one sub-group of lipoproteins which carry the digested lipids from small intestine to the rest of the body.
The varying densities between the types of lipoproteins are characteristic to what type of fats they transport. However, the main steps of fatty acids catabolism occur in the mitochondria.
Membrane lipid biosynthesis[ edit ] There are two major classes of membrane lipids: glycerophospholipids and sphingolipids. Although many different membrane lipids are synthesized in our body, pathways share the same pattern. The first step is synthesizing the backbone sphingosine or glycerol , the second step is the addition of fatty acids to the backbone to make phosphatidic acid.
Phosphatidic acid is further modified with the attachment of different hydrophilic head groups to the backbone. Membrane lipid biosynthesis occurs in the endoplasmic reticulum membrane. Phosphatidic acid phosphotase catalyzes the conversion of phosphatidic acid to diacylglyceride, which will be converted to triacylglyceride by acyltransferase. Tryglyceride biosynthesis occurs in the cytosol. Cholesterols are essential because they can be modified to form different hormones in the body such as progesterone.
Plant Lipid Metabolism
The main function of cholesterol is controlling the cell membrane fluidity.Lipolysis is the breakdown of triglycerides into glycerol and fatty acids, making them easier for the body to process. A small protein called p7, which resides immediately downstream from E2, is required for virus assembly [ 17 , 18 ] although it is not known whether it is also a component of virions. Cholesterol side-chain cleavage. The varying densities between the types of lipoproteins are characteristic to what type of fats they transport.
Disorders of Lipid Metabolism
Sphingosine kinase. These energy stores can be rapidly mobilized in periods of scarcity, as first suggested by ex-vivo experiments in canine kidney slices conducted by Weidemann and Krebs [ 38 ] more than 40 years ago.
In chloroplasts, PG is generated in the inner membrane of the envelope where phosphatidylglycerol-phosphate synthase and phosphatidylglycerol-phosphate phosphatase EC 3.
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