AC 65 12A PDF
The companion advisory circulars to AC A are the Airframc and Fower- plant Mechanics General Handbook, AC A, and the Airframc and Powerplant . A - [Large AC] Airframe and Powerplant Mechanics Powerplant AFS Cancellation Memo AC A (PDF, KB); AC A (PDF, MB). and Powerplant Mechanics Powerplant Handbook, AC A. This volume contains information on airframe construction features, assembly and rigging, fabric.
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and Powerplant Mechanics Powerplant Handbook, AC 65~12A. This volume contains information on airframe construction features, assembly and rigging, fabric. ACA - Ebook download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read book online. LIBRO AERONAUTICO DE CHILE. AC A. Airframe and Powerplant Mechanics. Powerplant Handbook. Файл формата pdf; размером 26,35 МБ. Добавлен пользователем.
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Mechanic: A and P Mechanics Powerplant Handbook : AC 65-12A by FAA Staff (1988, Paperback, Reprint)
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Reciprocating action of pistons. The propulsive force is obtained by the displacement of a working fluid not necessarily the same fluid used within the engine in a direction opposite to that in which the airplane is propelled. This is an application of Newton's third law of motion.
Air is the principal fluid used for propulsion in every type of powerplant except the rocket, in which only the byproducts of combustion are accelerated and displaced. The propellers of aircraft powered by reciprocating or turboprop engines accelerate a large mass of air through a small velocity change.
The fluid air used for the propulsive force is a different quantity than that used within the engine to produce the mechanical energy. Turbojets, ramjets, and pulse jets accelerate a smaller quantity of air through a large velocity change. They use the same working fluid for propulsive force that is used within the engine. A rocket carries its own oxidizer rather than using ambient air for combustion. It discharges the gaseous byproducts of combustion through the exhaust nozzle at an extremely high velocity.
Engines are farther characterized by the means of compressing the working fluid before the addition of heat. The basic methods of compression are: 1 The turbine driven compressor turbine engine. A more specific description of the major engine types used in commercial aviation is given later in this chapter.
General Requirements All engines must meet certain general requirements of efficiency, economy, and reliability. Besides being economical in fuel consumption, an aircraft engine must be economical the cost of original procurement and the cost of maintenance and it must meet exacting requirements of efficiency and low weight per horsepower ratio. It must be capable of sustained high power output with no sacrifice in reliability; it must also have the durability to operate for long periods of time between overhauls.
It needs to be as compact as possible, yet have easy accessibility for maintenance. It is required to be as vibration free as possible and be able to cover a wide range of power output at various speeds and altitudes. These requirements dictate the use of ignition systems that will deliver the firing impulse to the spark plugs or igniter plugs at the proper time in all kinds of weather and under other adverse conditions.
Fuel metering devices are needed that will deliver fuel in the correct proportion to the air ingested by the engine regardless of the attitude, altitude, or type of weather in which the engine is operated. The engine needs a type of oil system that delivers oil under the proper pressure to all of the operating parts of the engine when it is running. Also, it must have a system of damping units to damp out the vibrations of the engine when it is operating.
Power and Weight The useful output of all aircraft powerplants is thrust, the force which propels the aircraft. Since the reciprocating engine is rated in bhp brake horsepower and the gas turbine engine is rated in pounds of thrust, no direct comparison can be made.
If desired, the thrust of a gas turbine engine can be converted into thp thrust horsepower. But it is necessary to consider the speed of the aircraft. One horsepower equals 33, ft-lb per minute or mile-pounds per hour. Under static conditions, thrust is figured as equivalent to approximately 2.
Therefore, it is not practical to try to rate or compare the output of a turbine engine on a horsepower basis. The aircraft engine operates at a relatively high percentage of its maximum power output throughout its service life. The aircraft engine is at full power output whenever a takeoff is made. It may hold this power for a period of time up to the limits set by the manufacturer. The engine is seldom held at a maximum power for more than 2 minutes, and usually not that long.
Within a few seconds after liftoff, the power is reduced to a power that is used for climbing and that can be maintained for longer periods of time. After the aircraft has climbed to cruising altitude, the power of the engine s is further reduced to a cruise power which can be maintained for the duration of the flight.
If the weight of an engine per brake horsepower called the specific weight of the engine is decreased, the useful load that an aircraft can carry and the performance of the aircraft obviously are increased. Every excess pound of weight carried by an aircraft engine reduces its performance.
Tremendous gains in reducing the weight of the aircraft engine through improvement in design and metallurgy have resulted in reciprocating engines now producing approximately 1 hp for each pound of weight. Fuel Economy The basic parameter for describing the fuel economy of aircraft engines is usually specific fuel consumption.
These are called "thrust specific fuel consumption" and "brake specific fuel consumption," respectively.
Equivalent specific fuel consumption is used for the turboprop engine and is the fuel flow in pounds per hour divided by a turboprop's equivalent shaft horsepower. Comparisons can be made between the various engines on a specific fuel consumption basis.
At low speed, the reciprocating and turbopropeller engines have better economy than the turbojet engines. However, at high speed, because of losses in propeller efficiency, the reciprocating or turbopropeller engine's efficiency becomes less than that of the turbojet.
Figure shows a comparison of average thrust specific fuel consumption of three types of engines at rated power at sea level. See figure Comparison of fuel consumption for three types of engines at rated power at sea level. Figure Comparison of fule comsumption for three types of engines at rated power at sea level.
An aircraft engine is reliable when it can perform at the specified ratings in widely varying flight attitudes and in extreme weather conditions. Standards of powerplant reliability are agreed upon by the FAA, the engine manufacturer, and the airframe manufacturer.
The engine manufacturer ensures the reliability of his product by design, research, and testing. Close control of manufacturing and assembly procedures is maintained, and each engine is tested before it leaves the factory.
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Durability is the amount of engine life obtained while maintaining the desired reliability. The fact that an engine has successfully completed its type or proof test indicates that it can be operated in a normal manner over a long period before requiring overhaul. However, no definite time interval between overhauls is specified or implied in the engine rating.
The TBO time between overhauls varies with the operating conditions such as engine temperatures, amount of time the engine is operated at high power settings, and the maintenance received. Reliability and durability are thus built into the engine by the manufacturer, but the continued reliability of the engine is determined by the maintenance, overhaul, and operating personnel.
Careful maintenance and overhaul methods, thorough periodical and preflight inspections, and strict observance of the operating limits established by the engine manufacturer will make engine failure a rare occurrence.
Operating Flexibility Operating flexibility is the ability of an engine to run smoothly and give desired performance at all speeds from idling to full power output. The aircraft engine must also function efficiently through all the variations in atmospheric conditions encountered in widespread operations.
In single engine aircraft, the shape and size of the engine also affect the view of the pilot, making a smaller engine better from this standpoint, in addition to reducing the drag created by a large frontal area. Weight limitations, naturally, are closely related to the compactness requirement. The more elongated and spread out an engine is, the more difficult it becomes to keep the specific weight within the allowable limits.Ram compression due to high flight speed.
Some radial engines have two rows of seven or nine cylinders arranged radially about the crankcase. Opposed or O-type Engines The opposed-type engine, shown in figure , has two banks of cylinders directly opposite each other with a crankshaft in the center.
Federal Aviation Administration. AC 65-12A. Airframe and Powerplant Mechanics. Powerplant Handbook
These requirements dictate the use of ignition systems that will deliver the firing impulse to the spark plugs or igniter plugs at the proper time in all kinds of weather and under other adverse conditions. Inline Engines An inline engine generally has an even number of cylinders, although some three cylinder engines have been constructed.
This thrust, or propulsive force, is provided by a suitable type of heat engine.
Since the reciprocating engine is rated in bhp brake horsepower and the gas turbine engine is rated in pounds of thrust, no direct comparison can be made. It develops more power per pound of weight than does the reciprocating engine, thus allowing a greater fuel load or payload for engines of a given power.
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